ATransC White Paper on Transcommunication

with Emphasis on Electronic Voice Phenomena
by Tom and Lisa Butler, Revised April 2017

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by-nc-saThis is a brief overview of what is currently known (by the ATransC Directors) about transcommunication with an emphasis on Electronic Voice Phenomena (EVP). It is written by Tom Butler and published by Association TransCommunication (ATransC). Please feel free to share this under the Creative Commons 3.0 License

This explanation is written in terms of the Trans-Survival Hypothesis.1 It depends on current parapsychological research (psi, psi-field and survival)2 and the accumulated evidence provided by the citizen scientists of the paranormalist community.3

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Transcommunication can be defined as a trans-etheric influence that is intended to be communication; trans-etheric communication. The “trans-“ prefix denotes across the etheric-physical interface. Here, “etheric” is used to designate the nonphysical aspect of reality. Virtually all reported paranormal phenomena are thought to involve some form of trans-etheric influence. Not all trans-etheric influences are considered communication. Some, such as residual energy phenomena are thought to simply happen without regard to who is experiencing the event.

Term: Psi

Psi is a term used in parapsychology denote an as yet unexplained form of information access or influence. Psi is considered more neutral than such terms as ESP and mind-matter interaction; psi, psychic, and psychical are synonyms. Some form of subtle or nonphysical energy field, referred to as a psi field, is thought to permeate the physical universe. As it is modeled, the psi field provides the means of transmitting information related to psi functioning (psychic) and the influence of psychokinesis in a here is everywhere (nonlocal) manner. See EVP are “Echoes of the Past” or Residual Energy below.

To simplify communication, psi and psi field are used in ATransC literature as synonymous with etheric (the greater reality). Since mind is considered nonphysical, psi functioning is used to mean any form of mental perception or mental expression when not speaking of normal physical senses and abilities. An important difference in usage is that the ATransC considers nonlocal to mean everywhere is here, while parapsychologists us it in the sense of here is everywhere.

Term: ITC

 7csocrates2010-011810_011_contrast     1csocrates2010-111609_18_contrast
Two examples of visual ITC produced recorded by the Socrates Circle by generating optical-frequency noise using a video feedback loop. Left is the profile of a person looking to your left. Right is the head of a dog looking slightly to your left.

Ernst Senkowski4 coined the term, Instrumental TransCommunication (ITC) to describe “ … meaningful anomalies including extraordinary voices, computer text, recorded images and images found on video displays suggestive of a continuance of life after death.” Note that After Death Communication (ADC) and mediumship should be considered subsets of transcommunication but are not necessarily ITC. (Because of common use in this field, terms with a “trans-“ prefix are often used without the hyphen.)


Speculation about EVP can be traced back to the 1920s. In a Scientific American5 interview, Thomas Edison was quizzed on his views regarding contacting the dead. Edison said that it might be “possible to construct an apparatus which will be so delicate that, if there are personalities in another existence or sphere who wish to get in touch with us in this existence or sphere, this apparatus will at least give them a better opportunity to express themselves than the tilting tables and raps and Ouija boards and mediums and the other crude methods now purported to be the only means of communication.” There is no indication that Edison designed or tried to construct such a device.6

Did Edison make a machine that could talk to the dead?

This seems to be another tall tale that Edison pulled on a reporter. In 1920 Edison told the reporter, B.F. Forbes, that he was working on a machine that could make contact with the spirits of the dead. Newspapers all over the world picked up this story. After a few years, Edison admitted that he had made the whole thing up. Today at Edison National Historic Site, we take care of over five million pages of documents. None of them mention such an experiment.

From: Edison National Historic Site,
[The site has removed this FAQ.]

In 1936, Attila von Szalay, A Californian, started capturing paranormal voices on phonograph records and then in the mid-1950s he was joined by Raymond Bayless. Together they acquired many evidential EVP on their new tape recorders and they published their findings in the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research.7

The person credited with bringing EVP to the public is Friedrich Jürgenson, a Russian-born Swedish film producer. In 1959, after recording birdsong on his tape recorder, Jürgenson heard on playback what appeared to be a human voice. Subsequent recordings contained a message which seemed to be coming from his dead mother.8

Konstantin Raudive is credited for learning about EVP as a student of Jürgenson and introducing EVP to the English-speaking world with the Colin Smythe publication of the English-language Breakthrough9

Colin Smyth is credited with coining the term, “Electronic Voice Phenomena” (EVP) as a more inclusive alternative to “Raudive Voices,” as the voices recorded by Raudive were referred to at the time.10

In 1982, Sarah Estep founded the American Association of Electronic Voice Phenomena. She continued to publish quarterly newsletters until 2000, at which time Tom and Lisa Butler assumed leadership. In 2010, the name of the organization was changed to Association TransCommunication (ATransC) to account for the international nature of membership and to acknowledge the need to study all forms of transcommunication.

Theories Proposed to Explain Observed ITC Phenomena

The existence of EVP is not realistically contested. Any reasonably capable person with a device capable of recording audio can expect to eventually record an understandable utterance that cannot be explained with known science. The same can be said for some forms of visual ITC. A workable protocol for recording EVP can be found in the Techniques section of (Also below in Recording for EVP). The real questions are what or who is causing them (if appropriate) and how they are caused.

It will be helpful if you understand the three dominant models used to explain the nature of reality. (There is a detailed discussion of these hypotheses in the Trans-survival Hypothesis essay.

physical-universeThe Physical Universe Hypothesis

This is the mainstream science view and what is taught in school.

  • All that exists is the physical universe.
  • The universe has evolved from a singularity into what it is today.
  • Life has evolved on earth from a primordial soup into what it is today.
  • Mind has evolved as a product of brain which is a product of evolution.
  • Memory is an artifact of mind.
  • When the brain dies, mind and memory cease to exist.
  • People have five senses: smell, sight, hearing touch and taste.

To simplify conversation, people who think the Physical Universe Hypothesis is correct can be described as Normalists. Parapsychologists who lean toward the Physical Universe Hypothesis often work under the banner of Anomalistic Psychology, 41 which holds that reported paranormal experiences are actually ordinary-world experiences mistaken as paranormal. In effect, these parapsychologists are debunkers determined to find a normal explanation for all psi and survival-related phenomena.

The Super-Psi Hypothesis

super-psi-hypothesisThis is the parapsychological view in which psi functioning is normal. There is a convergence in thought between the mainstream and parapsychology as physical and psychology research increasingly agrees with the existence of something like psi and a psi field. This view is known as the Super-psi Hypothesis when extreme instances of psi functioning must be considered.

  • All that exists is the physical universe.
  • The universe may have evolved from a singularity into what it is today.
  • A subtle energy (psi) field permeates all of physical reality.
  • Life has evolved on earth from a primordial soup into what it is today.
  • Mind exists in the psi field and continues beyond death of the brain as differentiated, residual energy.
  • Brain is a transmitter/receiver for mind.
  • Thought, memory and emotions are retained in the psi field.
  • People have five senses that are informed by impressions from the psi field.

To simplify conversation, people who think the Super-Psi Hypothesis is correct are described here as Psi+ Normalists. Parapsychologists who lean toward the Super-Psi Hypothesis are increasingly working under the banner of Exceptional Experiences Psychology, 42 which holds that reported paranormal experiences may be ordinary-world experiences mistaken as paranormal but may also be evidence of psi. In effect, these parapsychologists are debunkers determined to find a normal or psi explanation for all psi and survival-related phenomena.

It is important to be aware of the different models for consciousness and survival spoken of in the literature. Here is a shorthand version of the Notes on Consciousness article in 37

  1. Local Biological Consciousness: Based on the assumption that the physical is all there is and consciousness is a product of some still unknown biological process.
  2. Nonlocal Biological Consciousness: This is the same as Local Biological Consciousness but extends outside of the body into the psi field.
  3. Nonlocal, Non-Biological Consciousness: Consciousness is a sentient, self-aware life form which coexists with the organism during a physical lifetime experience.

There are three theories modeling the evolution for consciousness:

  1. Biological Evolution: As a biological product, consciousness evolved with the organism.
  2. Survived Biological Evolution: As a biological product, consciousness evolved with the organism, but as a survived form of consciousness which has evolved alongside the organism.
  3. Etheric Origin of Consciousness –:

When mainstream academics speak of consciousness, they are referring to 1a. Most Normalist parapsychologists refer to 2a. Most Psi+ Normalist parapsychologists refer to 2b. Most layperson paranormalists refer to 3c.

As a general (but probably always true) statement, people discussing survival in the context of quantum theory are referring to 1a, 1b or 2a, 2b.

The Survival Hypothesis

trans-survival-hypothesisThis is an alternative view that has evolved out of etheric studies. It is not accepted by mainstream science and only conditionally by parapsychology.

  • There is a greater reality of which the physical universe is an aspect.
  • The psi field is an aspect of a greater reality.
  • The greater reality is composed of etheric energy with a spectrum of characteristics (aspects) of which psi is one.
  • Mind with its thoughts, memories and emotions has evolved in the greater reality and continues to exist beyond death of the brain.
  • For a lifetime, mind and brain are entangled to produce a physical-etheric link.
  • During a lifetime, mind is expressed as consciousness and an etheric personality (unconscious).
  • People have five senses that are informed by impressions from the psi field by way of personality to conscious self.1

People who think the Survival Hypothesis is correct can be described here as Dualists. Some Psi+ Normalists accept that mind is different from body. The distinction is that Dualists think mind preceded body and continues after the body in a sentient form. Psi+ Normalists think mind is a product of body, and sentience ceases when the body dies. For them, all evidence of survival is just evidence of survived memory.

Physical Explanations

Not all skeptical complaints are wrong. Paranormalists need to understand the alternative explanations and be willing to discard possible paranormal phenomena in order to not be self-deluded.

Paranormal is and is not

The experiences referred to as paranormal phenomena are very rare. Yes, mind is thought to be in the etheric, and if so, all of our sensing and expressions are via psi influences. But since we are so well conditioned to think we are our body, we are seldom aware of this psi functioning as being more than our five physical senses. Paranormal means those experiences that are outside of the normal and thought to be related to extraordinary human ability and survived personality.

The first measure of any paranormal experience is that it must able to be witnessed by others, either directly such as hearing the recording thought to be of a discarnate person’s voice, or indirectly, by way of predictive evidence such as a mental medium’s correct description of a discarnate loved one.

Because of the way we process information,40 It is very difficult for us to tell which of our thoughts are normal and which are paranormal. For instance, the naturally occurring tendency for us to experience the expected, and the way our unconscious mind tends to try to please our conscious desires, easily leads to perception that seems to be paranormal, but that is concocted by our mind.

Having confirmation from two or more witnesses is no guarantee the experience is paranormal, but it is at least a useful first filter. It is important that witnesses do not know what to expect and are not captive in a situation in which they unconsciously want to please the practitioner. (There is strong evidence that people are sometimes so eager to please that they will convince themselves of the truth of something that is not true.)

To make this point clear, if phenomena is not able to be witnessed, it should not be considered paranormal. If it cannot be witnessed, then it is not paranormal in the sense that paranormal is intended. If it is thought to be paranormal but cannot be witnessed, then it must be considered a miss (incorrect psychic/mediumistic message), illusion (perceptual/mental malfunction), or misdirection (fraud, trick).

Normal Mistaken as Paranormal

Probably the most obvious explanation is that the voices are recordings of stray radio signals. Inexpensive portable electronic equipment designed record audio signals, such as handheld audio recorders, are able to detect and record stray radio signals under certain conditions. This is not normally a problem, but it is possible and should be considered when evaluating possible EVP.

The proliferation of digital technology is making it less likely that radio signals might be mistaken as EVP. AM radio is about the last signal source that a voice recorder can detect so that the broadcast information can be understood. If the signal is in a digital format, it must be converted to analog to be understood and equipment not intended to decode the message will not do this. This is true of digital recorders as well. If you wish to assure yourself that EVP are not radio signals, consider the article: Eliminating Radio Frequency Contamination for EVP23

It is usually the near zero level of the recorded signal that becomes contaminated by stray radio signals, and the normally inaudible contamination can become audible with amplification.

Simple content analysis of EVP is usually sufficient to establish that the utterance in question is unlikely to be crosstalk or unnoticed voices from people in the room. Assuming the practitioner is not attempting to provide scientific evidence, it is usually adequate to note whether or not the utterances are complete statements, if they are appropriate to the circumstances and if they are understandable. If they were stray radio or television signals, they would contain the telltale signs of commercial broadcast, they would often be partial statements and they would usually be nonsensical, considering the circumstance. Until you have gained confidence in the validity of EVP you record, it is important to ask friends to be your listening panel. The Witness Panel draft best practice will help.29

It is also a best practice to use a second audio recording process as a control for situations that might have unnoticed voices in the room or stray radio. Please review Control Recorder for EVP30 The need for background sound in transform EVP makes it less likely that a higher quality recorder will pick up an EVP. This makes the use of a video recorder to make a visual record of fieldwork an excellent technique for making a control recording of the session.

Imagination of the Experiencer

This is an important possible explanation for any form of phenomena involving unexpected sounds, images or events. Modern technology is capable of producing a wide variety of unexpected results (mundane or technology artifacts). A person can easily mistake an artifact as phenomenal unless the person is an expert in the use of that technology. For instance, when used in an automatic mode, and with a flash, modern cameras often keep the shutter open much longer than the user realizes. A characteristic of film and digital image detectors referred to as latency will cause a moving camera to image a bright light, such as a streetlight or the camera flash reflected from a bright object in the scene, much quicker than a poorly illuminated background. This can result in a ghostly streak of light in a photograph while the background scene seems to indicate that the camera never moved.

Figure illustrating a sound track with the utterance, “Betty’s in there.” A workable level for background sound used in voice formation is shown. The increase in amplitude of the voice is believed to be due to the accumulation of energy prior to formation of the utterance. This is transform EVP.


The point is that such photographic artifacts are mundane, yet they are often offered as evidence of ghosts. In the same way, sounds in an audio recording can be made by very mundane influences but yet sound very paranormal. For instance, it is common for a person to take a breath of air just before speaking, and the sound of that breath can be mistaken as an EVP when a person is examining every little sound in the recording.

All aspects of etheric studies are plagued by what is generally termed the lack of critical thinking amongst people seeking to experience these phenomena. In view of the complexity of the involved technologies, this is a natural result.

Recent study is indicating that the expectations of practitioners and witnesses can have an influence on how sound is experienced. In the Phantom Voices study,31 nearly half of the participants reported hearing some form of voice in two audio files that were clearly marked as only containing noise and no voice. A clever practitioner might describe simple noise as voice and provide an explanation as to how those voices are meaningful, and distressingly, witnesses will too often agree. This characteristic of EVP is still being studied, but what is clear is that all of us must be very careful to manage expectations and cultural influences. EVP is objective evidence and that means that other people can hear the same thing without coaching. The inverse of this is also true. Concepts such as inattentional blindness and incredulity blindness 39 suggest that people who have a strong disbelief in things paranormal are less likely to be able to experience EVP.


Psi Explanations

EVP are not necessarily initiated by a discarnate personality. As shown in the Life Field Complex Diagram discussed in Personality-Centric Perspective essay,40 a person (etheric personality entangled with a human in an avatar relationship) is required for trans-etheric influences. As such, the question becomes which personality expressed the initial intention. The following are arguments reasonably posed by Psi+ Normalists.

Thoughts of the Practitioner

Once the “normal” explanations have been eliminated, there remains the possibility that the voices are paranormal but that they are caused by a physical person. It is here that the argument changes from “Is EVP real” to “Who is talking?”

A number of experiments have been conducted that did indicate it is possible to record the thoughts of people known to be still in the physical.25 Current thinking is that the conscious aspect of a person is what survives physical death, and when a still living person is in some way disassociated from the physical body, his or her conscious self is much the same as the etheric communicator. In other words, it is predicted that the thoughts of a living person should be able to be recorded in EVP.

While many of the observed characteristics of EVP could be explained as thoughts of the living, on occasion, a person will record the voice of a person, say John, who is later shown to be the discarnate son of a person who had not yet joined the Association. In subsequent conversations, John’s voice is recognized saying the sort of things John would have said while in the flesh. It is this sort of evidence that reminds us that EVP are a complex group of phenomena and no single explanation is likely to be found.

EVP are “Echoes of the Past” or Residual Energy

The Super-Psi Hypothesis27 models that the mind is a product of the brain and the information being accessed via EVP, and the other forms of apparent etheric-to-physical influences, are either caused by the practitioner or some other physical agent.

Physicist David Bohm and neurophysiologist Karl Pribram proposed a field of energy that underlies all of reality.32 This field of energy, referred to in parapsychology as the psi field, is thought to have three characteristics that might account for the observed etheric-to-physical phenomena. It is thought to behave according to quantum principles, especially that of entanglement which shows that, once objects have become associated at a quantum level, influencing one object will have a similar influence on the other, even though it may be very far away in distance and in time.

The second characteristic of the psi field is that this field exhibits the character of nonlocality, meaning that information in it is equally available from any place in the field. This characteristic is required to explain such phenomena as a remote viewer accessing information that is miles away and a medium supposedly getting information from discarnate entities (the Super-Psi explanation is that the medium is finding the information in someone’s memory).

The third characteristic of this field is that it retains the residual energy of consciousness, and therefore contains all that was ever known, thought and experienced. It is thought that this residual energy provides the psychically gathered information. An alternative version of this is that if the information is in someone’s memory, then it is accessible to others, at least subconsciously.

For the Trans-Survival Hypothesis, the greater reality is referred to as the etheric, and the psi field as an aspect of the etheric. In that way, survival studies benefits from psi studies but does not otherwise accept the idea that survival is actually survived residual energy of consciousness.

Survival Explanation

You have probably noticed by now that that Survival Hypothesis is not a simple concept or decisively true or not. During the development of the Implicit Cosmology,38 it became obvious to me that the science decisively shows that mind is not physical. While there remains a very small possibility that mind is a product of brain, that perspective is increasingly unsupportable.

Here is an important perspective for you to consider. If you think something is true, then it is necessary to consider the implications of that truth. In this perspective, the truth is actually only a belief if the implications are not reasonable. If mind if not brain, then mind must be nonphysical (referred to here as etheric). That means that mind is not electrical or magnetic, as both are physical phenomena. It means that mind must somehow communicate information with body. That is, signals from your five senses must be converted from bio-electric information to etheric information, and in turn, etheric information must be converted to bio-electric information to influence the body.

The implication is that all of mind’s information exchange is etheric (defined in parapsychology as psi functioning). In a very real sense, and assuming mind is not brain, your relationship with your physical body is the relationship of your conscious self (an etheric life form) with your body (a biological product of this planet). While there may be alternative models, this is the one that seems to best explain the experience of being a person (etheric personality entangled with a human body for a lifetime).

One model that looks a lot like survival argues that mind is a product of brain which exist sin the psi field, and that originated when life formed on this planet. As the argument goes, each instance of life contributed to the mind field, thus evolving mind along with body. I tried to model this theory with currently understood science and reported experiences, but it fails to explain the sentient, individual nature of survived personality.

And so, survival means existence of conscious self, prior to a lifetime as a person, and continuing after this lifetime in a conscious, individual sentient form.

Evidence of Survival

Considering the explanation about what is and what is not paranormal (above), unless verifiable information can be brought back that is not in someone’s memory, out-of-body and near-death experiences are not paranormal in the sense discussed in this paper. This is not to say that they are not real, it is just that they are very difficult to distinguish from normal human the ability to imagine experiences. Reincarnation is a little more convincing, but the ability to witness evidence is still an important measure of paranormality.

A concept you need to become familiar with is the idea of cultural contamination. In that, a practitioner or an interested observer might color produced phenomena, such as EVP or mental mediumship messages, with information in worldview. Worldview is the filter through which perception if filtered. The supporting mental processes will attempt to explain unfamiliar information with existing information in worldview. As such, a genuine message from a discarnate loved one of, say, “I am always with you,” might be expressed in an EVP or mediumistic message as “I am standing beside you.” In fact, the practitioner’s expectation that the loved one is near might produce the message, even if the loved one is not.

Cultural contamination always colors instrumentally or personally delivered messages. There is just no way to avoid that fact. A well-trained practitioner should know how to minimize the coloring, but the reality of it is that witness panels are our best defense against delusion. We must be determined to avoid false positives.

With that said, each form of paranormal phenomena inherits a degree of credibility from the other forms. A good example of this is when a mental medium announces the presence of Uncle John, and an EVP with Uncle John’s voice is recorded at the same time. The accumulation of evidence that EVP are initiated by discarnate personality gives you reason to accept at least some EVP as evidence of survival.

Because of cultural contamination, and the fact that information from a mind still entangled in a lifetime looks a lot like information from a discarnate mind, the Super-Psi Hypothesis can be at least partially used to explain transcommunication. To discount the Super-Psi Hypothesis, the task is to find an example containing information that was not known by any living person when it was formed. The one example we have access to is Marth Copeland’s “Doja, no!”

Martha’s daughter, Cathy, transitioned as a young woman and Martha assumed care for her dog named Doja. Martha had accidentally left Dojo in the house when she left to go shopping. It was her habit at the time to always leave her voice activated digital recorder turned on, and so, it was also left on in the house with the dog. No one was in the house except for the animals. Dojo tore up a potted plant and made a great mess. You can hear an EVP from Cathy as she scolded the dog saying, “Doja, no!” 43

Again, the idea that paranormal phenomena inherits credibility from more credible phenomena applies here. The best proof of the Super-Psi Hypothesis is EVP. The Best proof of Survival are some examples of EVP and research supporting psi functioning theory.

Error on the Side of the Mundane

Always the first explanations that should be considered are those that involve only normal phenomena. These include mundane artifacts mistaken as paranormal, fraud and illusion. Of course, if any of these explain the reported experience, then it is not considered transcommunication. There is much that is not known about the physical world and known physical principles might eventually explain these phenomena.

Assuming there are no known mundane explanations, the Super-Psi Hypothesis2, 27 should be considered. Super-psi proposes that these phenomena are caused by information that has been somehow recorded into the psi field and are able to be detected by our senses and instruments. In other words, apparent survival phenomena are only evidence of memories or echoes of the past.

The Survival Hypothesis2 should be considered last. After considerable examination of the evidence, the ATransC officially accepts survival as a demonstrated fact. It has adopted a working version of the Survival Hypothesis referred to as the Trans-Survival Hypothesis as the theory thought to best explain the evidence.

The ATransC has adopted a working version of the Survival Hypothesis referred to as the Trans-Survival Hypothesis. It is the theory thought to best explain the evidence. The essay “Implicit Cosmology” is the starting point for a thorough discussion of the subject.1 The essay “Implicit Cosmology” is the starting point for a thorough discussion of the subject.

Every instance of phenomena is reviewed by the ATransC directors in terms of “is it mundane, is it just super-psi or is it survival?” We are always mindful that some very well informed and intelligent people are watching your every move to find ways to show we are deluded. This is not about science or facts so much as it is about beliefs. Our skeptics are believers in scientism. They are often irrational, and will always seek to use our claims about the paranormal as proof that we need to be protected from ourselves

Types of EVP

Electronic Voice Phenomena are formed in three very different ways, all of which are dependent on the availability of a relatively chaotic signal which has been shown in research to able to be influenced with psychokinesis.

Background Sound

Experience is showing that a microphone is only important to introduce additional noise if the noise generated internally by the recorder is not useful for voice formation.

A very high quality recorder produces very little internal noise but a low-quality recorder typically produces too much steady-state noise, which is not useful for EVP.

Current understanding is that noise in the voice range–400 to 4,000 Hz–with many perturbations, such as small noise spikes, is useful for voice formation. The noise is needed for voice, but the perturbations are apparently useful to initiate the voice formation process.

One technique to produce this form of noise is to rapidly sweep a radio dial. The objective is to sweep the entire dial in under a second so that no whole words or even allophones can be detected. This is not radio-sweep as used in “Ghost” or “Spirit Boxes” type devices, which is typically a much longer sweep that may produce whole words in the output file, thus producing many false positives.

Sounds from a common fan, running water or passing cars have been shown to be “dirty enough” to produce EVP.

Transform EVP

Traditionally EVP formation has involved the transformation of available audio-frequency energy into voice. This transformation is thought to occur in the electronic equipment, specifically in an analog stage before the signal is digitized for storage.

The resulting signal is seen as a simulation of human voice which may closely mimic the physical voice of the person thought to be speaking. This includes nuances of voice indicating accent, age, sex and attitude. Analysis of the resulting voice often shows novel arrangement of formants (clusters of frequency grouped by octaves of the voice box frequency produced during passage through the mouth) and fragmented voice box frequencies (Formant 0).11

Prior to wide availability of personal computers, the static between radio stations was often used as background sound for transform EVP since radios were a readily available source of sound. Current Best Practices involve the use of noise, such as that produced by a fan. The use of any form of “live voice,” such as a possible voice from a radio broadcast, is strongly discouraged.

Random Selection

This can also be described as opportunistic EVP because it is thought to require the availability of already formed voice fragments. It depends on a random process which is thought to be influenced by the communicating entity. In the application known as EVPmaker,12 a prerecorded sound file containing voice is stored in a buffer with each buffer address containing a small segment of the original sound file. A random process is then used to randomly select the contents of the buffer addresses. The resulting stream of randomly selected sound fragments becomes the output sound file. Meaningful messages are sometimes found in that output stream. It is believed that the communicating personality’s intention to communicate might cause meaningful perturbations in the random process, thus selecting intended buffer addresses.

EVPmaker developer, Stefan Bion,12 has provided an input sound file on his website which contains speech fragments known as allophones which are generated by a speech synthesis program. In this application, if a word is present in the output, it must be formed by a chance arrangement of allophones or it must be the product of intended manipulation of the random process. The deciding factor is whether or not the utterance is meaningful for the circumstance. An example of this is at real-time, two-way conversations.

Environmental Control of Speech Synthesis

Some applications employ environmental energy sensors to control the operation of a speech synthesis process or to select addresses in a word or voice fragment buffer. It is believed that the communicating personality’s intention to communicate might cause meaningful perturbations in the environmental energy, thus selecting intended buffer addresses.

What is Probably Not EVP

Please review the online journal article, EVP Formation,13 for a more in-depth explanation about what is known about EVP today. An important part of that article is a discussion about characteristics commonly found in EVP. Based on those common characteristics, and the result of other studies, it is becoming evident that certain technologies (probably) do not produce EVP.

The most commonly used of these technologies that probably do not produce EVP is radio-sweep, which uses modified radios popularly known as ghost boxes or spirit boxes. The case study14 report is typical of the kind of study indicating radio-sweep probably does not produce EVP. A Research Study into the Interpretation of EVP15 which is a 2013 study conducted by Parapsychologist Dr. Mark Leary, indicates that radio-sweep examples thought to be EVP are typically not correctly understood by a listening panel.

There are clearly instances in which the noise produced by rapidly sweeping* radio stations is used to produce transform EVP when the noise produced by the sweep is recorded. In this case, the radio-sweep process is really just a novel form of sound conditioning for the production of transform EVP when the sweep output is recorded. The radio sweep process may be beneficial as an aid to the operator’s intuitive understanding of the question; however, resulting “EVP” appears to be more the practitioner’s storytelling to create meaning where none was intended.

*Most radio-sweep devices us a two to three seconds sweep. Sweeping at less than a second, certainly fast enough so that no understandable voice can be heard, often produces an output sound that has all of the characteristics needed for transform EVP.

Characteristics of EVP

The following list is extracted from Section III: Transcommunication of, Your Immortal Self: Exploring the Mindful Way, 38 with additions based on more current work. The characteristics will provide a sense of how EVP sounds and the nature of the phenomenal voices.

Transform EVP

The first group of characteristics is specifically for transform EVP, which are thought to be formed by the transformation of audio frequency energy into a simulated voice.11

  1. EVP are distinctive: EVP have a distinctive character of cadence, pitch, frequency, volume and use of background sound. The voices have a distinctive sound to them that is difficult to describe. For instance, EVP messages often have an unusual speed of enunciation; the words seem to be spoken more quickly than normal human speech.
  2. A need for background sound sources: Research has shown that the voice in EVP is formed out of ambient sound energy.17 Because of these characteristics, it is standard practice to assure the availability of ambient sound for voice formation, even while isolating the recording device or process from uncontrolled ambient sounds, such as crowd noise, so as to avoid mistaking unnoticed normal voices as EVP.
  3. Frequency range: EVP are formed in available background sound. As such, if there is a high frequency component in the background sound, say caused by whistling wind, it is possible that the EVP will be of similar frequency range. If there are both higher and lower frequency components in the background sound, it is possible to find EVP formed in both regions of the sound. In some instances, two different voices might overlap.
  4. Missing frequencies: Spectral analysis of EVP samples has shown that the fundamental frequencies of voice associated with the human voice box are sometimes missing. One researcher describes the typical EVP as a thickening of the background noise to form the voice.17
  5. Precursor sounds: Sounds are often heard prior to an occurrence of EVP. Although these vary in nature, they tend to be within tenths of a second of a phrase and are a popping or clicking noise reminiscent of the squelch sound caused when the automatic gain control engages as the push to talk button is depressed on a Citizens Band radio.18
  6. EVP show evidence of being limited by available energy: Utterances tend to have about the same amount of audio power in their associated sound wave from one EVP sample to another. That is, a short EVP will tend to be louder than a long EVP. A very long phrase might be composed of two or more average-length phrases separated by brief pauses. Also, an utterance may trail off at the end, as if the energy is being depleted before the message is finished. It is as if the communicator is attempting to manage available power as packets of energy.19
  7. EVP are complete words or phrases: Message are typically one to two seconds in duration and are not truncated at the beginning or end. If EVP were radio interference, they would often begin in the middle of a word. EVP messages are usually complete thoughts, as well.19
  8. The voices in EVP are often recognizable: It is common for an EVP to contain the recognizable voice of the discarnate person thought to be speaking. It is also common for that entity to say something that was typical of what he or she would have said while in the physical. Personality clearly remains intact even though the person no longer has a physical body.20
  9. EVP is found wherever the practitioner listens: This suggests that the source of audio noise is not a factor for EVP, so long as the audio energy is suitable for voice formation. In practice, the majority of techniques for recording EVP involve sound conditioning, rather than unique forms of psi detection. For instance, upscaling infrasound so that it can be heard by human ears or downscaling ultrasound really constitute techniques of sound conditioning. The resulting EVP is not evidence that the utterance was formed beyond human hearing, but that it was formed when the audio frequency energy was made available to the recording process.

All forms of EVP

  1. EVP Are in a language the practitioner understands: Alexander MacRae has conducted experiments in a place that has no English language radio or television stations, yet resulting EVP were in English, which is his primary language. It is typical for the EVP, no matter where they are recorded, to be in a language that the practitioner understands. There have been exceptions to this which were apparently intended as a demonstration, but as a rule, EVP will be spoken in a language understood by the practitioner or an interested observer.19This brings up an interesting point of speculation about psi-based communication. Mental mediums often report that they receive communication from nonphysical entities as images which they must interpret. These images are not just mental pictures. They are packets of information that are sufficiently complete for the receiver to fully understand their meaning. Robert Monroe21 referred to this form of information as “Thought Balls.”
  2. EVP are not ambient sound or broadcast programming: Studies have been conducted to determine if EVP are stray radio signals, ambient but unnoticed voices or other sounds. EVP have been collected in an electrical, audio and radio frequency shielded room.22 In one study, a radio and a recorder were placed in a padded chamber which was then buried under ground. The recorder did not record radio programming but did record EVP, which were transformed from the noise produced by the radio.23
  3. Party line:  Some EVP sound as if they are comments intended for someone other than the practitioner. This is much like momentarily listening in on a party line telephone call. It is not uncommon in both field and controlled recording situations to record comments that seem as if unseen people are discussing the practitioner’s actions in much the same way that you might discuss the activity of someone that you were watching.
  4. EVP are appropriate to the circumstances: There are numerous examples of EVP that are clearly direct responses to questions recorded just prior to the EVP phrase or to the circumstances. An example of an EVP being appropriate to a circumstance is an EVP recorded by Lisa. We were asking a woman about the upstairs lighting and sound room for the Frank Sinatra Theater at the Cal-Neva Casino at Lake Tahoe, California. They had heard that the heavy door to the room often shut for no apparent reason, scaring the crews setting up lights and sound systems for shows. The woman told them that she never, ever went to the control room. Lisa’s recorder was on while she thanked the woman for her assistance. On the recording, Lisa can be heard saying, “Thank you very much.” Underneath her voice, is a clearly heard paranormal voice saying, “Please don’t come.” However politely said, it seems obvious someone did not want to be disturbed.
  5. Precognitive responses: Answers to questions may be recorded prior to a question being asked, so that the answer, as a phenomenal message, is on the sound track followed by the practitioner asking the question. More research is required before making informed speculation about this observed characteristic, but the indication is that the entity may be sensing what the practitioner is about to ask as a mind-to-mind exchange following the “avatar model” as discussed in the Implicit Cosmology.1
  6. Vocalized questions elicit more EVP: There is evidence that the communicating entities are able to read our thoughts, as illustrated by the occasional EVP which clearly responds to a comment just seconds before the comment is expressed. However, analysis by MacRae suggests vocalizing our comments and questions produces more frequent EVP.19
  7. The “newness” effect: The practitioner’s excitement in trying a new detection device or recording technique may be the cause of improved EVP collection. As the new approach becomes normal operating procedure, the improvements generally fade back to a more normal Quality and Quantity (QQ) of EVP collection. This suggests that it is important for the practitioner to maintain piqued interest during experiments. This is also one of the reasons it is speculated that the practitioner is an integral part of the recording circuit. The practitioner is apparently supplying the necessary psi influence to produce a useful contact field to enable a nonphysical to physical transfer of information.
  8. Effective devices unique to the practitioner: Exceptionally effective EVP and ITC collecting systems have been developed; however, these typically work well for the developer, but do not necessarily work as well for other practitioners. This paradox supports the belief that the practitioner is part of the recording circuit. It has also reinforced the concept that the communicating entity may be specific to the practitioner.
  9. EVP can be thoughts of living people: Two experiments appear to show that at least some EVP might be initiated by living people who were sleeping or distracted at the time. In these prearranged experiments between a practitioner and a sleeping person, questions were clearly answered by a communicating entity, and the answers were appropriate for the sleeping person. This fact of EVP suggests the possibility that EVP can become an important tool for consciousness research. For instance, is it possible that a patient in a coma might initiate an EVP?25
  10. Understanding EVP may be like learning a new language: As discussed in the EVP Online Listening trials report, people with little or no experience listening to EVP will typically correctly report words in Class A transform EVP on average of 20% to 25% of the time. In contrast, an experienced practitioner should correctly understand close to 100% of Class A utterances.26 This number drops to 0% to 5% for studies of radio-sweep (Spirit Box, Frank Box, Ghost Box) and 0% if single-syllable utterances are omitted.14, 15

Recording for EVP

The following information is intended to provide a technique which is most likely to produce results. This is for transform EVP based on the material provided by ATransC in the Techniques section of this website. Please also consider the best practices which are drafted in Best Practices

Types of Recording Sessions

These instructions are for transform EVP not using live voice as an input file.

A characteristic of the psi field known as auric energy or bioenergy is thought to accumulate in any frequently occupied place, and especially in places in which strong emotions or frequent deep meditation occurs. As such, find a “special” recording area for your sessions in which you will not be bothered and in which you can control the noise. In field recording, it is difficult to control environmental conditions or supply background sound, but in known “haunted” locations, the energy helpful for contact may already be present.

Recording Procedure

Recording Equipment: Any device capable of recording voice frequency sound. A computer is recommended and a way to transfer audio from the recording device to a computer. The computer should be equipped with an audio management program, such as the open source, Audacity.36
Digital voice recorders are recommended for transform EVP. Less expensive models produce more internal noise which is useful for voice formation. High quality units will probably require added background noise. A computer can also be used, but will probably require added noise. 35

Remembering that the voice in transform EVP is apparently formed out of available audio-frequency noise, as a general rule, quieter recorders (less internal noise) will require more background, room noise. (See the sidebar: Background Noise) This means that, if you are using a second recorder as a control, using a higher-quality device will tend to assure the EVP will only be produced in the less expensive device.


Entities will speak at any time of day or night. In the beginning, however, it is advisable to record at a regular time and place. By doing this, the entities learn when there will be an opportunity for contact and your expectation of the upcoming session helps focus your attention on the process. Try to find a place that will be quiet and free of interruptions. Background sounds are okay, but it is important to be aware of these so that they can be distinguished from the EVP during analysis. It may help to make an “appointment” with the intended communicator the day before, during prayer or meditation.

Background Sound Source

As previously noted, sounds in the environment are apparently used to help form the words. Most recording situations have some background sounds, but it may be necessary to add noise with something like a fan or running water. Some people use foreign language radio, crowd babble or audio tapes, but ATransC discourages the use of radio static or human speech (live voice) of any form. Be inventive. In controlled conditions, it is also possible to use high-quality recorders, because you can supply sound. (Always consider how sounds in the environment might seem like EVP in a recording.)


Begin with meditation and a short prayer to ask for only those intending the highest good and an invitation to friends on the other side to participate. This is not a religious function. The conscious expression of intent helps to set your expectations and sets bounds for your communicators. Even if you do not accept the hypothesis that EVP are initiated by discarnate beings, whoever or whatever is initiating the messages, setting intention helps the process. It is best to recording when your energy is the highest.


Begin by stating your intention for communication and then say that you are turning on the recorder. The communicators will often come through as soon as the recorder is turned on and these beginning messages may be the loudest, so it is a good idea to turn on the recorder and wait a few seconds before speaking.

Some people also provide feedback before the session so that the communicators will know what worked in the last experiment. It is not necessary to record in the dark.

Vocalize your comments during an EVP session. Questions should be recorded, and a period of time between each comment should be left for the communicators to respond–about ten seconds. At the end, ask if they have something to say and leave time for them to respond.


In transform EVP, the voice is usually not heard until playback. Practitioners report that the voices tend to become stronger and clearer as they and the entities gain in experience, but at first the voices may speak in whispers. Voices may not be recorded in every session and it may take several sessions to discover the first voice. Hearing the voices is a learned ability. It might take thirty minutes to examine a three or four-minute recording. Experienced practitioners learn to use the waveform as a clue as to where an utterance might be. The “Betty’s in there” waveform shown above will give you an idea of what to look for.

Think of EVP as a form of communication. The attitude held by experienced practitioners is that the communicators will leave their message wherever they think someone will listen. It is a good practice to expect to find the voices where normal human voice would be found. It is not a good practice to amplify a nearly flat-line waveform to see if speech is present because enough amplification to make it clearly audible may well amplify radio-frequency contamination.

Classifying Examples

Most EVP are difficult to understand. Using a classification system helps you have a sense of the quality of your examples, and helps to set the expectations of your listeners. The classical system is the Class A, B and C ranking; however, the ATransC is testing a slightly expanded system34 intended to also include visual forms of ITC. It is explained in the article: “Classifying Phenomena.” It has been posted there so that you will have the opportunity to tell us if you like it and/or how you would like to see it changed.


In the modified system:

Type 1: Transformed physical media; not always present
Type 2: Always present; often as a persistent artifact

The Classes are as before, but described in more generic terms:

Class A: Evident without explanation
Class B: May require directions
Class C: May be vaguely experienced; mostly obscured by noise

Class B or C voices may have one or two clearly understood words. Loud does not equal Class A. Transform EVP are considered Type 1, Class A, B or C.

Keeping a Log

Keeping a recording log is helpful for tracking your progress. If you do keep a written log, it is a good practice to record the date, time and circumstances of the recording. If there are multiple recordings in the recorder, then it is always important to speak your location and to note ambient voices, and such, at the beginning of each recording. When you find an EVP that is clear enough to keep, note the date and time and seconds into the recording in your log. Also, not the words thought to be spoken and perhaps any significance … were you doing something the entity commented on? Be sure to label and save the audio file so that they can be found at a later time. Practitioners report that they feel weather may affect results, but this has not been well studied.

Keeping a well-organized storage system and notes will be very helpful to you when you have many recordings, or want to revisit an old one and need to know when and where it was recorded. However, experience has shown that keeping everything is just unreasonable. Unless the message has special significance, it is a good practice to discard all but the clearest examples. Depend on the help of friends acting as your witness panel. If they do not hear what you hear, discard the recording. It is just too easy to fool yourself.

Real-time EVP

The objective for most EVP practitioners is to achieve real-time, two-way communication with a loved one on the other side. If you pursue that line of investigation, it is important to remember that EVP are thought to be formed in a single analog stage of the electronic equipment. This may be in the output stage of an audio player used to supply background sound (if one is used) or in the input stage of the recorder used to collect the EVP.

(It is possible the transform might occur in the air, but that would look more like direct voice, to which current theories do not necessarily apply.)

If you are listing to the output of a recorder while it is recording, be mindful as to where there are additional analog stages. For instance, is the EVP formed in the amplifier for the speaker you listen to and not fed into the analog-to-digital converter for storage?

We would love to hear from you if you learn anything about this process.

Analyzing the Recording for EVP

Always use headphones when listening to the recording in a computer. The earmuff style that completely covers the ear is best, but also good are the soft rubber ear buds that are inserted into the channel of the ear.

Assuming a digital recorder is used, the voice is digitized right after it is limited to the required signal strength coming from the input amplifier. If it is necessary to record the sound file into the computer via an audio cable, the signal is turned back into analog, and then digitized again by the computer. There is little or no evidence that an EVP will be changed while in a digital format, but it is possible for change or even new utterance while transferring in the analog phase.

It is possible to reasonably reproduce the average human voice with a sample rate of 8,000 KHz, so it is recommended that the audio file be saved into the computer at 11025 KHz sample rate, 16-bit word file. Mono or stereo is a personal choice. Once the audio file is in the computer, it should be saved as a *.wav file for storage and editing.

Current best practice for sharing an EVP example on the Internet is to convert the file to mono, *.mp3 format, but using editing tools on mp3 is discouraged if it is for research. A 200 kb audio file can be reduced to around 15 Kb when converted from a *.wav file to an *.mps file. This makes it easy for sharing files via the Internet.

It is also best practice to provide a raw clip of the EVP, along with a bit of your voice for reference, if possible, followed by a short silence and then the whole clip again with any editing you may have done. Explain what you have done so that your listener will know what to expect.

Finally, ten decibels or so of amplification, perhaps a little noise reduction and high-end filtering is about all that should be done to a sound track to make the utterance more easily understood. It is possible to change the meaning of an EVP with over processing, and the general rule is to discard the EVP if it cannot be understood with only slight enhancement, and certainly discard nonsensical utterances.

A listening technique is to select a few syllables of a possible utterance and then play it over and over to allow your mind to look for familiar sounds. People are trained to recognize common arrangements of sound as words, but EVP are often formed from odd arrangements of sound, depending on what is supplied, and the usual cues are often missing. A very loud, well-spoken phrase could still be difficult to make out for a person not accustomed to hearing EVP.

A good practice is to make sure the sound you think is an EVP containing an answer to a question, or perhaps a comment about an event. Because we mentally formulate what we are going to say before speaking, it is reasonable for an answer to your question to come just before you ask or shortly after. It is discouraged to relate questions and answers that are separated by more than a second or so, and certainly if they are separated by another question.

In opportunistic EVP techniques, it is not good practice to let the recording run and then select likely sounds for which you give meaning with a likely story. While this should be obvious, it is a very common practice. An even greater sin is to remove intervening time so as to make unrelated utterances seem to have come together.

The objective is to give your listener a sense of perspective so as to develop a mental image of the EVP in relationship to a physical person’s voice., and how soon before or after the EVP came in relationship to the question. Always try to show the witness what you have done to make the voice clear.

In every case, try to use a witness panel.29

Storage and Sharing

Be sure to set up a method of saving your recordings in your computer that will allow you to easily locate examples. A good practice is to save the raw recording session in a dated folder and then also save clips containing the EVP in the same folder. Field recordings are saved under the name of the location and the date. It is helpful to keep a separate folder for your Class A examples for easy retrieval for demonstration to friends.

Unless you are conducting EVP sessions for research, consider it a kindness to only send the portion of the sound file containing the EVP and perhaps a bit of physical person voice. We too often receive examples that are embedded somewhere in a ten or fifteen minute-long file. It is just too demanding for your witnesses to search for the intended utterance in a long file.

As a final note on this, after recording for ten or fifteen years, we finally learned that it is senseless to keep all of our recordings and logs. It is a good practice to cull the best from the files as you go and discard all but the most meaningful. EVP are actually very common amongst practitioners, and there is little special about Class C and B examples.

What You Need to Know

The following observations will help you gain a perspective of the scope of this study:


The degree of clarity between conscious self and mostly unconscious mind is referred to as lucidity. Thinking there is a clear connection, when in fact, there is hardly any at all is referred to as hyperlucidity. This seems to most often occur when a person works alone or does not accept input from others. It is usually seen as a complex of behavior including delusion, argumentative interaction with those who do not support the delusion and rejection of the opinion of subject-matter specialists.

Who Can Hear the Voices

A series of online listening studies showed that the average ATransC website visitor participating in the study could correctly identify only 25% of the words in the Class A EVP examples. (See the study here) Most experienced practitioners have learned not to expect a person who is unaccustomed to hearing EVP to correctly understand examples. This is especially true if the person is skeptical to begin with. The message to all of us is that, even though the example may be very clear and obvious to us, it is unrealistic to attempt to show an example to the police or a grieving person.

Of course, it is possible to guide a person into hearing what we say is in the recording. But by every rational measure, “teaching a person to hear what we say is in the recording is considered “leading.” People, especially people who are grieving the loss of a love done, are simply too easily guided into hearing what is not there.

Before attempting to share an example with untrained witnesses, we recommend that the example be passed by a witness panel without prompting. Only if the majority of a panel is able to hear what is believed to be in the example, is the example ready for untrained ears. Doing this helps to protect the practitioner from accusations of taking advantage of people.


A common concern is whether or not it is possible to attract a discarnate entity (ghost) and later be bothered by it. People are realistically concerned that they might bring one home. In fact, we have no verified record of anyone being harmed by their communicators. Any harm that has been reported has been due to the practitioner’s overreaction to imagined danger.

There is a potential problem for people who are fearful of the unknown, as their imagination can create circumstances which might be dangerous for them. If you are very fearful of the unknown, if you are inclined to do what you imagine you have been instructed to do or if you have a history of mental illness, it is advisable that you avoid working with any form of transcommunication.

Prone to Seeing Phenomena Where There Are None

This is along the same line of thought as the safety issue mentioned above. People new to these phenomena and those who have not educated themselves in the state of the art are prone to a syndrome sometimes referred to as hyperlucidity. (The clarity of awareness between a person’s conscious self and core personality in the etheric is referred to as lucidity.) Hyperlucidity is marked by the tendency to find phenomena everywhere despite considerable testimony to the contrary by peers.

Visual ITC

Visual ITC is the term used to identify anomalous faces, scenes and other recognizable features found in visible noise. Based on known physical principles, the features should not exist, yet they are objectively experienced by the average witness. ITC appears to be governed by the same principles governing the formation of transform EVP. The optimum medium for their formation appears to be optical, chaotic noise of medium-intensity. Very bright or very dark noise tends to obscure the feature.

Just as with EVP, the faces of visual ITC are sometimes recognizable as loved ones, sometimes even on request, making visual ITC a form of induced trans-etheric communication. Each form of ITC inherits a degree of credibility from other forms, even as more is learned by studying all forms. And so, visual ITC is considered another proof of survival.

Visual ITC is not the same as spirit photography in which an apparition is found in a photograph, even though it had not been known to be present when the picture was taken. Precipitation art is also a different form of phenomena, even though some of the chaotic characteristics of visual ITC are sometime found in the art work.

The physical process known as stochastic resonance is a means by which a small signal is amplified when combined with a chaotic signal in a nonlinear electrical circuit. As with transform EVP, this process is hypothesized as the mechanism by which a weak psi influence is able to impress the communicating personality’s intended order on the chaotic signal, thereby producing audible or visual ITC features.

Video Loop ITC

Any technique that will produce medium-intensity, chaotic optical noise. Ca be used for the collection of the paranormal features. In the video loop technique we use, a video camera is connected to the Aux In of a television set. The camera is pointed at the screen so that it is able to record the camera output as it is displayed on the screen.

The circuit shown in the Video Loop ITC Diagram is typical for producing chaotic optical noise suitable for visual ITC. We have been using a Cannon 8mm ES2000 analog camcorder placed about three feet from a Sony KV20TS32, 20 inch Trinitron color TV. The camera is used in Portrait Mode and is focused just beyond the screen surface.caaevp2004_video_setup

The camera lens is zoomed so that only about 75% of the screen is visible to the camera. We usually have the camera at about a 45-degree angle from the screen and pointed just to the side of the center where the rolling image seems to begin.

It is routine for us to try different angles, and camera distances from the screen in an effort to find the best configuration. It is interesting that, some days, we are hardly able to develop the desired rolling scene. We have made no effort to track environmental conditions except that we noted a difference, apparently due to location. We were able to develop a good rolling scene in the corner bedroom but the best production of the phenomenal features was in the middle bedroom. The only difference between the two adjacent rooms is that, in the corner room, the equipment was about ten feet closer to an outside wall supporting the house power distribution box. The Chaotic Noise Example screen print below will give you an idea of what has been an optimum display to produce the features. Also see the example on You Tube at

Clarity is a Function of Equipment

Each configuration of equipment used in video loop ITC will produce a different visual effect. There are probably even differences amongst units of the same brand. The rolling effect on the screen is a cycle that is about a second in duration. An average of thirty frames per second of full video quality only produces five or six frames per cycle that contain noise suitable for phenomena. A session is usually about fifteen seconds so that there may be ninety or so frames that may contain features. To save time, we only save the ones that appear interesting as we step, frame-by-frame through the saved video file. A typical fifteen second session will produce thirty or so frames interesting enough to carefully examine.

If we have the equipment set right, and if a number of as yet undetermined environmental factors are okay, we may save ten or so useful features from the session. There have been many sessions in which we saved none. Also, the texture of the noise may be more or less grainy, depending on where we had the focus plane.butler_photoshop_screen_print

Chaotic Visual Noise in Video Frame: This is a video frame taken from a video-loop ITC session. Contrast in a region of the frame has been changed to make the feature more visible. The same region has been copied to a second file and contrast has been further enhanced. The feature appears to be a woman or girl wearing a bonnet and looking to your right shoulder.

Software for Frame Analysis

Finding suitable video capture and frame examining software has been a challenge. Adobe’s Premier 10 was not very expensive and came bundled with Photoshop Elements 10. Currently, we are trying CyberLink Power Director with some success.

Each likely frame should be rotated in 90 degree increments while being examined. Frames are numbered something like 1-2-14-2017, 2-2-14-2017, 3-2-14-2017 and so on. Individual features are each copied into a new file, and those worth saving are labeled 3-2-14-2017a, 3-2-14-2017b 3-2-14-2017c and so on. The idea is to be able to associate a feature with the video frame from which it was captured.

Analog Versus Digital

In EVP, it is pretty clear that the voice is formed in the electronics, probably in a single transistor junction. Stochastic amplification requires an analog, nonlinear process which is available in the active region of semiconductor devices. There is no apparent requirement for which transistor junction is used, except that it should be in a part of the circuit that permits recording of the results. The same applies to visual ITC, but because of the nature of the video loop, it is not clear which device is actually used.

An all-digital circuit would not seem to provide the necessary environment for stochastic amplification. For instance, when a webcam is used that has a digital image sensor, and that connects to the computer via USB cable, the only analog stage before display on the computer monitor is the image sensor.

Light Reflected from Moving Water Technique

Short of simply taking a picture of medium-intensity texture and brightness surfaces, probably the simplest method to produce ITC features is photographing light reflected from moving water. All you need is a camera and a container for water as shown below. Any camera will do but if you use a video camera, you will need a computer program for examining the individual frames. Otherwise, handling of the individual pictures is the same as for video loop ITC.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Sauce Pan for Water ITC: Glass sauce pan in a black pot with about three inches of water. Black pot is just for contrast. Any overhead light source will do to reflect from water. Take pictures of water as it is disturbed with finger or spoon. The objective is for the moving water to produce many areas of medium-intensity reflected light.

May 2011 Water Images 047 composite

King: Except for the face, the left picture is typical for light reflected from moving water. The violet comes from the glass sauce pan. The paranormal face at the right of the left frame has been enlarged in the right picture. Water was agitated with a moving finger.

Alternative Techniques

Again, the requirement for visual ITC appears to be medium-intensity, chaotic optical noise. A computer monitor or television screen is self-luminous, but moving water, smoke, even breath in cold air requires some form of illumination. The camera must see light reflected from the chaotically moving surface.

Caution should be taken about what is paranormal and what is strange. For instance, mirrored pictures often have symmetry of dots and shapes, sometimes giving the appearance of alien faces. There is very little reason to think these are paranormal. Part of the objective of working with these phenomena is to show the evidence of survival. It is important that that evidence is what we claim it to be.

If you enhance a feature more than with a little contrast to make it more easily seen, it is important to show the original alongside the enhanced version. It is very important that people are able to understand the limits of your evidence.

Also keep in mind the limits of your equipment. We use relatively old technology equipment. Each stage degrades the resolution so that, when a feature is finally displayed in a photograph, the graininess of the feature often obscures what the communicating entity probably intended us to see. That loss of resolution is one of the reasons a good camera and linear noise generation such as moving water, can produce clearer features than a video loop.

Much of this section has been extracted from Your Immortal Self. I recommend that you consider taking the time to read and understand that book.

Association TransCommunication (ATransC) Today

(Formally the American Association of Electronic Voice Phenomena or AA-EVP)

The Association TransCommunication is a 501 (c)(3) USA nonprofit organization. It is chartered as a publicly supported educational and research organization. The primary means of public education is the website, now containing over 400 pages of articles, research and study reports, personal stories, examples, theory and references.

The ATransC still has members, just not member dues. The ATransC has changed from support with member dues to support from earnings from AA-EVP Publishing and affiliate programs when website visitors use the eBay and Amazon links to make purchases. All of the funds, including proceeds from the Butler’s book, There is No Death and There are No Dead, are applied to operations, outreach and research. None of the volunteers, including the directors, receive compensation.

One form of ATransC membership is to be on the Occasional Update Email List. This is a very occasional newsletter used to help keep you informed about what we think is important to this work. You can register to receive these updates with the form on the right column.

Today, the ATransC is amongst the very few organizations in the English-speaking world that provides information about the Trans-Survival Hypothesis from the perspective of current understanding about transcommunication. If you think this study is important, then please consider supporting the organization by participating in the Idea Exchange and subscribing to the Occasional Update email.

A person can become knowledgeable about these phenomena and learn to work with ITC by taking the time to study the contents of this website but it is important to work with others who can act as “objective advisors.”

A recent addition to the website is all of the newsletter published by Sarah Estep and the Butlers, as well as Spirit Voices published by Bill WeisYour_Immortal_Self_coverensale. They are in PDF format and are accessible from the top menu.

Implicit Cosmology: Tom Butler has translated lessons learned by way of ATransC members and emerging understanding of survival into a model of reality intended to help further research in this field. Please take time to review the work at Also consider supporting the Association through the purchase of the book: Your Immortal Self: Exploring the Mindful Way by Tom Butler.

You are part of this community

The ATransC depends on public support to continue. Your donations will help assure that the research continues, but your participation is even more needed. This is a time in which all things paranormal are contracting while the skeptical community is thriving. By every measure, the paranormal community, i
ncluding parapsychology and the study of ITC is fading away. If you think this work is important, then it is important that you become active and help reverse the tide.


  1. Butler, Tom. “Implicit Cosmology,” Etheric Studies, Cosmology Series, 2015,
  2. Parapsychology Association,
  3. Online Journal, Association TransCommunication,
  4. Senkowski, Earnst. Instrumental Transcommunication, Frankfurt/Main: R. G. Fischer, Verlag. 1995, (English translation by Heidemarie Hallmann: – link to Books).
  5. Scientific American, Scientific American, Inc. New York, NY,
  6. Wagner, Stephen. “Edison and the Ghost Machine,” Paranormal Phenomena, 2009,
  7. Rogo, D Scott and Bayless, Raymond. Phone Calls From The Dead, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey, 1979.
  8. Jürgenson, Friedrich, Voice Transmissions with the Deceased, (German to English Translation, T. Wingert & G. Wynne, 2001) Friedrich Jürgenson Foundation, Sweden (Original work published 1964)
  9. Raudive, Konstantin, Breakthrough: An Amazing Experiment in Electronic Communication with the Dead, New York: Taplinger, 1971. First published by Colin Smythe, Ltd. and still available at
  10. Butler, Tom, Butler, Lisa. Private conversations with Colin Smythe. 2000,
  11. Presi, Paolo, Italian ITC researcher with the Interdisciplinary Laboratory For Biopsychocybernetics Research (Il Laboratorio), Bologna, Italy. [Defunct]
  12. Bion, Stefan. EVPmaker, 2008,
  13. Butler, Tom. “The Formation of EVP,” Association TransCommunication, 2008,
  14. Butler, Tom. “Radio-Sweep: A Case Study,” Association TransCommunication, 2009,
  15. Leary, Mark. “A Research Study into the Interpretation of EVP,” Winter 2013 ATransC NewsJournal, 2013,
  16. Butler, Tom, Butler, Lisa. There is No Death and There are No Dead, AA-EVP Publishing, 2003,, ISBN: 0-9727493-0-6.
  17. Gullà, Daniele. “Computer–Based Analysis of Supposed Paranormal Voice: The Question of Anomalies Detected and Speaker Identification,” Association TransCommunication, 2004,
  18. Butler, Lisa. “Precursor Sounds in Physical Phenomena,” Association TransCommunication, 2002,
  19. MacRae, Alexander. The Mystery of the Voices, Self-published CD, 2000, Portree Skye, Scotland.
  20. Copeland, Martha. I’m Still Here, AA-EVP publishing, 2005,, ISBN-13: 978-0972749312.
  21. Monroe Institute, 62 Roberts Mountain Road, Faber, Virginia 22938,
  22. MacRae, Alexander. “Report of an Anomalous Speech Products Experiment Inside a Double Screened Room,” as printed in the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, Volume 69, 2005,
  23. Bill Weisensale. “Eliminating Radio Frequency Contamination for EVP,” Spirit Voices, Issue 3, 1981,
  24. Butler, Tom. “Comparing Personality-Body Models,” Etheric Studies, 2010,
  25. Butler, Lisa. “Recording Thoughts of the Living,” Association TransCommunication, 2001,
  26. Butler, Tom. “EVP Online Listening Trials,” Association TransCommunication, 2008,
  27. Braude, Stephen E. “Survival or Super-psi?,” Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 127-144, 1992,
  28. Butler, Tom. “The Energy Profile of Transform EVP,” Association. TransCommunication, 2013,
  29. Butler, Tom. “Witness Panel,” Etheric Studies, 2013,
  30. Butler, Tom. ““Control Recorder for EVP,” Etheric Studies, 2007,
  31. Butler, Tom. “Phantom Voices,” Association TransCommunication, 2012,
  32. Talbot, Michael. The Holographic Universe, Harper Perennial, 1991,  NY, NY.
  33. Butler, Tom. “Mindfulness,” Etheric Studies, 2014,
  34. Butler, Tom. “Classification,” Etheric Studies, 2013,
  35. Butler, Tom, “Selecting an Audio Recorder,” Association TransCommunication, 2001,
  36. Audacity Audio Management Program, Audacity,
  37. Butler, Tom. “Notes on Survival,” Etheric Studies, 2017,
  38. Butler, Tom. Your Immortal Self, Exploring the Mindful Way. AA-EVP Publishing, 2016. ISBN 978-0-9727493-8-1.
  39. Butler, Tom. “Glossary of Terms.” Etheric Studies. 2014.
  40. Butler, Tom. “Personality-Centric Perspective.” Etheric Studies. 2014.
  41. What is Anomalistic Psychology? Goldsmiths, University of London.
  42. Simmonds-Moore, Christine. “What is Exceptional Psychology?” 76 supplement, Pages 54-57, Journal of Parapsychology, (#76 supplement, 54-57, 2012), 2012. (Behind a paywall).
  43. Copeland, Martha. “EVP Examples by Martha Copeland.” Association TransCommunication. org/copeland-evp/.


A Note about Wikipedia

The Wikipedia entries for frontier subjects such as EVP change as passing editors contribute corrections and different points of view. Since the skeptical editors have driven off most of the people who are knowledgeable about frontier subjects, paranormal articles frequently have many errors and are written with terminology designed to cast doubt on the subject, rather than to simply inform. Versions of articles with these errors have been copied onto other websites, which perpetuates the spreading of misinformation.

It is now official policy in Wikipedia to not allow what are referred to as fringe references, such as the peer-reviewed Journals published by the Parapsychological Association, Society for Psychical Research and Society for Scientific Exploration. All are considered pseudoscience and it is not even okay to propose considering them. Tom Butler was banned from editing the Rupert Sheldrake biography article based on the pseudoscience arbitration case which found in favor of the skeptical position.

Concerns with Wikipedia

Concerns with Wikipedia was written to explain why this it is important to everyone involved with frontier subjects to work for balance in Wikipedia articles. It offers suggestions for moderating Wikipedia’s negative influence.

March 2014 Update: Since Wikipedia has taken such a hard-line stance against all things paranormal as a matter of policy, the only rational response is to seek alternative means of explaining the reality of these phenomena. Please consider becoming an editor with Citizendium, an alternative wiki that has a policy of at least considering subject-matter expertise and is will allow well-considered references  from the paranormal journals.

(cc)2006aaevp-concerns_with_wikipediaYou are encouraged to put this logo on your website. The more links from other websites to Concerns with Wikipedia, the better chance there is that the public education article will be read.


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