Content: Research

A Report about Experimental Results

by Alexander MacRae Previously published in the Summer 2007 AA-EVP NewsJournal In 2004, I applied for a research grant to ...
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Developing Archive Suitable for a Literature Review

by Tom Butler Also see: Literature review writer's guide What is “In The Literature” for a Frontier Subject? A survey of the ...
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Grants for Research into Life after Death

The Helene Reeder Memorial Fund for Research into Life after Death (HRF) 2016 Announcement for Grant The Helene Reeder Fund is ...
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Research Project: Energy Profile of Transform EVP

proposed by Tom Butler Previously published in the Summer, 2013 ATransC NewsJournal The study began with: Seeking EVP Examples for ...
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Sarah Estep Research Fund

by Tom and Lisa Butler Introduction Sarah Estep's daughter Becky has made a memorial donation to Association TransCommunication that enabled ...
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Seeking EVP Examples for Study

by Tom Butler See: The Energy Profile of Transform EVP ATransC is seeking examples of Transform EVP that can be compared to supplied ...
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Sidereal Time EVP Study — call for participation

Tom Butler 2017    Introduction We are asking you to participate in a study to see if the ease with ...
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Using Live Voice Input Files for EVP

by Tom and Lisa Butler Previously published in the Spring 2012 ATransC NewsJournal Several members in the Idea Exchange have ...
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Why Has There Not Been More Study of the Paranormal?

by Tom Butler A 2005 Gallup survey shows that just about three in four Americans believe in the paranormal. So ...
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Sidereal Time EVP Study — call for participation

Tom Butler
2017

Study Registration Button  Study Report Form Button

Introduction

We are asking you to participate in a study to see if the ease with which you collect Electronic Voice Phenomena (EVP) changes with sidereal time.

Psi functioning studies (ESP, Psychic, Remote Viewing) widely vary in results. This more than expected variability in study results has undermined the repeatability aspect of psi studies and has given support to the illusion and experimenter fraud of skeptics. Parapsychologists have attempted to model this variability with speculation that psi functioning is need-based, that the researcher might have an unexpected psi influence (experimenter effect) or that the practitioner’s ability during a study might be diminished because of boredom (practitioner fatigue). None of these have sufficiently accounted for the variability of results.

James Spottiswoode conducted meta analysis on 1,468 psi functioning free response trials while adjusting the time of day the studies were conducted to Local Sidereal Time (LST, Local Star Time), rather than solar time.(1) A pattern emerged from the analysis showing that psi performance was actually more consistent when LST is considered. As the graph below shows, psi functioning performance peaked around 13.5 LST with a four-fold increase over mean performance.

The Implicit Cosmology predicts psi function and the collection of EVP involve the same processes. (2) However, the linkage between psi functioning and collection of EVP is not empirically well established. Determining if there is one might further our understanding of how EVP works and how sidereal time is involved in psi function.

Background

Sidereal time, also known as star time, is based on the motion of the earth relative to the distant stars rather than with respect to the sun, which is known as solar time. A normal timepiece displays solar time. A sidereal day is about four minutes shorter than a solar day, and a sidereal year is 365.24 solar years.

In 1997, James Spottiswoode published “Apparent Association Between Effect Size in Free Response Anomalous Cognition Experiments and Local Sidereal Time” in the Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol, 11, No. 2, jsasoc.com/docs/JSE-LST.pdf. (1) The ATransC published an article about the sidereal time findings in the Fall 2002 ATransC NewsJournal. (atransc.org/sidereal-time-psychic-phenomena/)(3)

As of this writing, there has been no definitive explanation as to why or how LST might have an influence on psi functioning.(4) Some studies have shown that the local magnetic field has an effect on psi performance so that decreased intensity of local magnetic field results in increased psi performance. Determining if this magnetic field-psi correlation also applies to EVP will test the Implicit Cosmology.

Sidereal Time EVP Study

The objective of this study is to look for possible relationships between quality and quantity of EVP per session based on sidereal time of day. Magnetic field data are also to be collected if available. Since a large sample is needed, the study is expected to continue for at least a year.

The study is based on the assumption that many people will experience essentially the same effect. As such, and assuming there will be a sufficient number of participants, individuals need not record every day, or even every month.

Study participants are asked to establish a routine of maintaining a record of local solar and sidereal time and local magnetic field at the time of routine EVP sessions. Only Class A and Class B examples are able to be used in this study, and practitioners are asked to use a witness panel. (8)

It is up to the participant to characterize witness panel agreement, if any, and use the report form to register the results of each session. Sessions that do not produce an EVP are just as important to the study, so please report empty sessions as zero Class A and zero Class B.

Please submit the Registration Form below if you wish to participate in this study. Once we have received the registration form via email:

  • You will be assigned a four-digit identification number. That number will be used to track your submissions.
  • We will register you in the Idea Exchange to enable you to ask questions, offer comments and suggestions. The forum is at atransc.org/forum/forum-50.html.

For the duration of this study, you are asked to:

  • In a log, routinely record local time, sidereal time, geomagnetism and approximate location during your EVP recording sessions.
  • Submit a study report for each session. Our objective is to identify trends based on routine, so report the results of any you consider routine, including field investigations and recording for others.
  • Use the Study Report Form to send us a record of each session. Report number of Class A, Class B or a “Zero” for sessions that did not produce Class A or Class B results. Please use a witness panel.(8)
  • Use one form submission for each session and maintain a record of what you submit.

Examples

We are not looking for good examples. The objective is to record the environmental conditions related to good examples. That is the information we will digest into a report indicating if quality and quantity of EVP is influenced by LST and geomagnetism.

Participants are welcomed to post exceptional examples on the Idea Exchange for others to listen to. If you do, please indicate if you are open to critique.

Accepted Form of EVP

Please pay close attention to the kind of example that can be used in this study:

EVP White Paper Button
Download Paper on Recording EVP

  • Radio-sweep technology such as that used in Frank’s Box, Hacks and Ghost Boxes cannot be used for this study.
  • Random access technology such as that used in EVPmaker and devices like the Ovilus cannot be used for this study.
  • EVP formed with any live voice technology such as prerecorded foreign-language, reverse voice track and prerecorded speech randomly selected from a database cannot be used. This includes allophones and phonemes. This includes foreign language recordings as well.
  • Unless there are extenuating circumstances , examples must contain more than one syllable. An exception might be a response to “What is my brother’s name?” of “John,” when “John” is the expected response. However, a “John” response to “Who is here?” is not acceptable.
  • It is okay if the example is in more than one voice.
  • Examples should be Type I Class A or Class B.(7)
  • Examples should be heard and understood by a majority of a witness panel. (8)

Please use the Idea Exchange if you have questions about these requirements.

Since we are not asking for the actual recording, it is necessary that we depend on your self-reporting. However, please do retain all examples you report on, as we may be asked to supply all raw data for further study.

 

LST Chart

Resources

Of course, we are available to answer your questions. Unless you have a personal issue, please use the Idea Exchange.

It looks like the Magnetic Field Calculator at ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag-web/#igrfgrid is useful. If you wish to use a smartphone app, there is also a Citizen Scientist project being conducted by NOAA testing cellphones for geomagnetic measurements here: ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/crowdmag.shtml.  They provide both an Android and iphone app.

I am currently trying out the Sidereal Clock app for Android at play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=bz.bsb.sidereal&hl=en

Download a Sidereal Clock for Your Desktop external.informer.com/radiosky.com/sidclockdownload.html.


Use this form to begin the process of registering you as a participant in this study.

Use this form to participate in the Sidereal Time EVP Study. We will respond by email with an identification number to be used when you submit EVP details for the study.



Please use this form to submit study reports.

References

  1. Spottiswoode, S. James P. “Apparent Association Between Effect Size in Free Response Anomalous Cognition Experiments and Local Sidereal Time.” The Journal of Scientific Exploration. Society for Scientific Exploration. 1997. jsasoc.com/docs/JSE-LST.pdf
  2. Butler, Tom. Implicit Cosmology. Etheric Studies. 2016. ethericstudies.org/implicit-cosmology/
  3. Butler, Tom and Lisa. “Sidereal Time and Psychic Phenomena.” Association TransCommunication. 2002. atransc.org/sidereal-time-psychic-phenomena/.
  4. Ryan, Adrian. “Physical Correlates of Psi.” Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century. Editors, Etzel Cardeña, John Palmer and David Marcusson-Clavertz, McFarland. 2015.  ISBN 978-0-7864-7916-0. Ebook ISBN 978-1-4766-2105-0. Amazon.com
  5. Butler, Tom. The Formation of EVP. Association TransCommunication. 2009. atransc.org/evp-formation/.
  6. Butler, Tom. ATransC White Paper on Transcommunication. Association TransCommunication, 2014. atransc.org/itc-white-paper/.
  7. Butler, Tom. Classifying Phenomena. Etheric Studies. 2016. ethericstudies.org/classifying-phenomena/.
  8. Butler, Tom (et al). EVP Witness Panel. Etheric Studies. 2013. ethericstudies.org/witness-panel/.
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Using Live Voice Input Files for EVP

by Tom and Lisa Butler
Previously published in the Spring 2012 ATransC NewsJournal

Several members in the Idea Exchange have been using recordings of foreign language as background sound for EVP sessions. What we refer to as “live voice” is not understandable to our English-trained ears so there seemed to be little danger of mistaking the input speech for EVP. Well, … that is the theory.

We used the same foreign-language input file for the Big Circle recording sessions over six months. This gave us ample opportunity to test the technique. What we found has been a real eye-opener. Both of us recorded and nearly every utterance one of us identified as an EVP could be found on the other person’s recording and the original sound file.

Each session, we played the foreign-language sound with a Sony ICD-B26 and recorded with a pair of Panasonic RR-DR60s placed about two feet away from the Sony. The only other sound in the meditation room we used is the normal, ambient sounds one would expect from a closed room with no forced air movement. Lisa typically turns off the Sony while we ask a question and then turns it back on while we seek a reply. DR60s are always in VOX mode.

The input file includes both male and female voice, making it easy for us to locate segments to compare. Because we did identify a few utterances in the input file that sounded a lot like English, we began comparing the two output sound files to see if any suspected EVP were in both. As it turned out, the majority were.

The current best practice for field recording is to use two recorders and discard anything found in both recording processes. (See: Using a Control Recorder for EVP) This is a good practice because it is well established that EVP occurs in one analog segment so that two recorders will not “normally” record the same EVP.

EVP does occur as a transformation of the foreign language into English words, but based on our study, naturally occurring sounds in the foreign language are too often mistaken as English. This is enough of a problem to warrant recommending that, when using live voice, two recorders should be used and both output files examined to assure suspected EVP are only in one of the files.

This recommendation applies to all forms of live voice including recording with EVPmaker, radio-sweep, and of course, foreign language speech. The opportunistic presence of English sounding words does not automatically mean transcommunication. This is especially true of short utterances, for instance, “yes” and “help.”

The best practice for using a control recorder will be updated in the Collective forum and a new one for live voice will be started. These practices are considered “living documents,” and will evolve as we learn. You are invited to help us develop these and similar articles. Your viewpoint is important and may help many others as a practice.

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Sarah Estep Research Fund

cbutler2001_sarah_estepby Tom and Lisa Butler

Introduction

Sarah Estep’s daughter Becky has made a memorial donation to Association TransCommunication that enabled the Association to establish a small a research fund. All of the donations that were made to the ATransC in honor of Sarah will be included in this fund. The Association is actively seeking additional funding for the Sarah Estep Research Fund (SERF). If you wish to support this initiative, be sure to let us know that your donation is intended to be added to the Sarah Estep Research Fund.  Remember that all donations are tax deductible!

Support

Contact the ATransC for details

 

Research

A few modest research grants have been issued by other organizations specifically for ITC research. The ATransC has issued two research grants but no others will be issued until The Energy Profile of Transform EVP has been funded.

 

Philosophy

The typical relationship between funding agency and researcher is for the agency to agree that the proposed research is within their scope of interest, the award of research funds and acknowledgement of the final report. In most cases, there are no further requirements placed on the researcher. A project might take a year or more, many projects are done in secret making collaboration amongst researchers impossible and the final results are too often seen by a relative few with archived material being accessible by even fewer. By most measures, the intended results held by the granting agency is not achieved.

This field is evolving at a breathtaking rate, and under current circumstances, research is not able to keep pace. In an effort to promote collaboration amongst researchers, and to assure that research reports remain available for public access, Association TransCommunication will us a different model. The Association will function as both the granting agency and as a research coordinator to assure minimize replication of effort and assist with public relations. In no way will ATransC make a claim of ownership of any of the resulting work, other than to assure that it is available to the public.

Once a grant has been issued, researchers will be expected to be available for consultation about the project with other researchers. It is not intended that every last detail of the project be public. The objective is to encourage collaboration and reduce replication of effort. Under the conditions of the grant, as researchers learn, they are expected to teach. If there is a concern that the project will be “scooped” by other researchers, ATransC can offer some assurance that the public record on atransc.org will document originality.

Subjects of interest

The objective of the SERF is to further humankind’s understanding of transcommunication and survival of the personality. Transcommunication includes EVP/ITC, spontaneous after death contacts, possible “hauntings” phenomena and such mental modalities as mediumship and energy healing. The study of survival of the personality includes the relationship of the person to the etheric and trans-etheric influences, the nature of the etheric and the nature of survival.

The Association TransCommunication is aware of several areas where research could advance our knowledge of ITC. For instance:

  • Improvements in audio recording technology for EVP.
  • A study of how humans hear sound intended to develop ways to avoid false positives in EVP.
    See The Online Listening Trials report for an example.
  • Techniques for teaching people how to hear EVP.
  • Using EVP with other trans-etheric communication modalities, such as clairvoyance and photography for phenomena analysis and verification.
  • Techniques for using transcommunication for information gathering, including locating lost people.
  • Relationships of different forms of environmental energy including electromagnetic, thermal, static electric, biofield (auric?) and etheric, and how they relate to trans-etheric influences.
  • Orb behavior in a controlled environment.

These are just examples. It is important that ATransC is not seen as limiting areas of research. The only real requirement is that the research must have something to do with survival of consciousness.

Researcher Qualifications

Anyone who can show a reasonable base of applicable experience, and is able to provide a well-considered proposal, may be a candidate for research funding. Proposals will be evaluated by the SERF Advisory Panel, based on the proposed experimental protocol, the candidate’s perceived ability to complete a usable project report and his or her willingness to subject that report to peer review.

A research candidates need not be a member of Association TransCommunication.

Procedure

Funded research will be formal research. This maxim should lead SERF grant candidates to understand the basic elements of a research project, including definition of the question, experiment design (protocol), results analysis and peer-reviewed final reporting. It is a good idea to contact ATransC with a query letter before spending very much time developing a proposal; however, actually writing a proposal as outlined below will help the person better understand the research question and how that question might be studied.

Survival studies and trans-etheric influences (collectively “Etheric Studies”) is not currently supported by peer reviewed journals. The organizations that do touch on this subject are primarily focused on psi studies and human potential, but they do sometimes entertain etheric studies related articles if they are well-written. Results of SERF funded research is expected to be published in a peer reviewed journal. However, if the author is unable to gain acceptance in one, publication in the ATransC Journal is acceptable, and the Association will coordinate peer review.

Proposal

ATransC is not considering new projects at this time

A well-considered proposal is required to help the SERF Advisory Panel make an informed decision. The proposal will also be used to seek funding, so while it need not become a public record, ATransC will require permission to discuss it with potential contributors. The proposal should include:

  • Project title
  • Author’s name and contact information
  • Researcher’s name(s) and qualifications as related to this project
  • Other funding and or sponsors
  • Brief explanation of the project including why it is important and what is expected to be accomplished, including a discussion of assumption
  • Statement of the research question(s)
  • Experimental protocol, including logistical and human resource considerations (availability what supporting people are expected to do and their required qualifications)
  • Discussion about why the protocol is appropriate
  • Discussion of “off-the-shelf” technology and material and what may need to be developed for the project
  • A discussion of how results will be characterized (criteria for success)
  • How results will be reported (journals, peer review; it is possible to use the ATransC Journal)
  • How the public will benefit from completion of this project. (For instance, new technology, device design, technique, clarification of hypothesis?)

After Receiving the Proposal

  1. The proposals will be reviewed by the SERF Advisory Panel, and if found to satisfy the basic requirements (described above), the author(s) will be contacted to discuss possible questions and logistical concerns. This will include a schedule of deliverables and estimated phases of the project to support progress reporting and contingent funding.
  2. If sufficient funding for the project is not available, Association TransCommunication will cooperate with the authors to seek additional funding from perspective donors. (From previous experience, having a specific, well-documented project for which funding is asked is more apt to have a favorable response than simply asking for money to support research.)
  3. Once funding is available, a grant will be issued and paid out in phases as agreed to in step 1.
  4. Progress reports will be made as agreed to in step 1. These will be evaluated by the SERF Advisory Panel subsequent further funding. The author should be aware that the SERF Advisory Panel may ask for additional work and/or reporting before further funding the project.
  5. However the final report is published (other organization or by ATransC), a version suitable for publishing by the Association in the NewsJournal and/or on the website will be required.
  6. The author/researcher(s) will retain ownership of all material resulting from the funded project. The report, hardware and software developed for the research and that is funded by the SERF will be licensed via Creative Commons with the intention of making SERF funded research reports, hardware and software designed for a SERF funded project available to other researchers. Such documents will include the statement “Available for public application under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution: Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported.” The effect will be that the material will remain the creative property of the researcher(s), subsequent use of the material will be credited to the scientists, but it will otherwise be freely available for subsequent development and/or research.

 

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Why Has There Not Been More Study of the Paranormal?

by Tom Butler

A 2005 Gallup survey shows that just about three in four Americans believe in the paranormal. So the question that needs to be asked is, “With such a large percentage of our population interested in the paranormal, why has there not been more study of the paranormal?” The scientific community is largely funded with public money. For instance, the US Department of Energy Office of Science, NASA and National Science Foundation each received $62.5 million, much of which is earmarked for education.1 Tuition fees do not cover the cost of universities and public funding is required. This means that science degrees are subsidized by the public.

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a department of the Federal Government chartered to advance the national health, prosperity and welfare by way of funding research and development. It is funded by the public at the annual rate of around $7 billion. Yet according to the NSF in the 2006 annual Science and Technology report, “A recent study of 20 years of survey data collected by NSF concluded that ‘many Americans accept pseudoscientific beliefs,’ such as astrology, lucky numbers, the existence of unidentified flying objects (UFOs), extrasensory perception (ESP), and magnetic therapy (Losh et al. 2003). Such beliefs indicate a lack of understanding of how science works and how evidence is investigated and subsequently determined to be either valid or not.”2

“Losh et al” is a reference to an article in the Skeptical Inquirer. A further comment about “pseudoscientific beliefs” is based on a reference from the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOPS) now known as the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), which states: “According to one group studying such phenomena, pseudoscientific topics include yogi flying, therapeutic touch, astrology, fire walking, voodoo magical thinking, alternative medicine, channeling, psychic hotlines and detectives, near-death experiences, unidentified flying objects and alien abductions, the Bermuda Triangle, homeopathy, faith healing, and reincarnation.” The celebrity skeptic, James Randi, is one of the founders and is the publisher of the Skeptical Inquirer.

According to the NSF, “The federal government provided 59% ($32.6 billion) of the $54.9 billion of academic spending on S&E R&D in FY 2009.” and “In FY 2009, the federal share of support for all academic research equipment funding was 55%.” and “Throughout the 1973–2008 period, fewer than half of full-time S&E faculty received federal support, whereas the share of postdocs who received federal support was more than 70%.” 3

So the answer to the question is that the organizations we are paying to help us understand and live with nature are the same ones that think we are uneducated about these subjects and misguided. Well, it is actually worse than that. The publicly funded organizations such as universities and the NSF are also very much aligned with the skeptical community which is determined to protect the intellectually naive masses (that is three in four Americans) from belief in anything that is not specifically supported by mainstream science. Their assumption is that, “if it is not accounted for in mainstream science, it is impossible and therefore cannot be.” The skeptical community has little or no research supporting their view of frontier subjects such as EVP and mediumship, so the net result is that they win their point by being the dominant group and discrediting research that does support the subject. In a very real sense, social pressure brought by the skeptics to potential research donors and scientists has and continues to prevent research that might prove or disprove our hypotheses. That is simply stopping progress to preserve the status quo.

One technique used to discredit a subject such as psi functioning is to put it in the same group as belief in a flat earth and the moon landing conspiracy theories. If one must be seen as unlikely, then all must be equally unlikely. But there is another factor involved in the success of the skeptical community. Many of the concepts involved in psychic ability (psi functioning) and survival are shared by religions. This leads to people thinking of such concepts as ghosts in religious terms such as demons and possession, rather than in terms of what is empirically supported. In his short essay, The Fallacy of Paranormal Democratic Science, David Wood* explores the idea that some people assume knowledge of a subject by ignoring those who are possibly more experienced. The real answer to the question might be that we are not very clear about what we believe. (*Essay has been removed from David’s website.)

Psi studies are fairly well represented by parapsychology. It is true that parapsychologists are shunned by mainstream science, but they at least have a culture of collaboration and peer-reviewed journals. There are even doctoral programs in some universities. Parapsychology claims to study survival, but other than reincarnation, near-death and out-of-body experiences, that community shuns etheric studies as much as mainstream science shuns them.

The skeptical community will only change its mind about survival of personality if mainstream science begins to openly study the evidence and conclude that the evidence indicates a real effect, rather than our delusion. Mainstream science will not study our subject if we do not present it in a rational manner. Making research funds available for projects conducted with good science is one way that we can attract mainstream science, but the most important thing we can do is to develop a community in which evidence-based reports are held in high regard, and collaboration amongst researchers is seen as a natural part of learning. It is important that we learn how to talk about our subject so that we can accurately report our experiences and research results. Peer review will only be possible when we learn to respect knowledge. If we do not develop the culture of a scientific community, there is little hope that we will gain the respect of mainstream science.

You are a member of this community and in a very real sense, you control if or when our field will attract serious research. Learn all you can; avoid “assuming knowledge.”

  1. American Institute of Physics, “Success: President Signs Bill Providing Additional Science Funding.” aip.org/fyi/2008/072.html
  2. National Science Foundation, “Science and Engineering Indicator 2006: Chapter 7: Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Understanding,” nsf.gov/statistics/seind06/c7/c7s2.htm Reviewed 30 December 2012
  3. National Science Foundation, “Science and Engineering Indicator 2012: Chapter 5: Academic Research and Development: Financial Resources for Academic R&D,” nsf.gov/statistics/seind12/c5/c5h.htm Reviewed 30 December 2012

 

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Developing Archive Suitable for a Literature Review

by Tom Butler
Also see: 
Literature review writer’s guide

What is “In The Literature” for a Frontier Subject?

A survey of the literature to determine prior art of the subject is generally conducted prior to beginning a research project, a study, meta analysis or writing an essay. This literature survey usually focuses on papers of high academic quality published by accredited universities and articles in peer-reviewed publications recognized by the academic community as “mainstream” and “reliable sources.”

In fields of study concerned with anomalous phenomena (paranormal) such as psi functioning and trans-etheric influences, there are a number of respected organizations which publish journals, some of which are peer-reviewed. In a few organizations such the Parapsychological Association, a doctorate degree is required for full membership. Others tolerate layman participation, but often at the expense of peer-review. The majority of articles presenting research in paranormal subjects is found in self-published books and on the Internet. Just as early-day armature naturalists preceded modern-day natural scientists, the majority of people involved in the study of things paranormal are not academically trained, but may nevertheless have considerable understanding of their subject. In many fields, the latest information about what is known from an experiential point of view is only available on the internet on non-academic websites.

What is a Reliable Reference?

The National Science Foundation is a government department assigned to fund and cultivate research in the USA. It is a major source of funding for research in the university system. In an AA-EVP article, Why Has There Not Been More Study of the Paranormal?, it is noted that the NSF’s viewpoint about what is science is based on an article published in the Skeptical Inquirer. 1

It is clear that the skeptical community is an important “opinion setter” concerning what is and is not science and that anything “mainstream,” especially the academic community, is represented by the skeptical media. An excellent barometer for the skeptical viewpoint can be found in the community of Wikipedia editors. Largely dominated by adherents of James Randi and Robert Carol, this group of editors has gone to extremes to purge their ranks of people who seek a balanced presentation of frontier subjects, and to disallow the use of what they refer to as “fringe” publications. Since all things in Wikipedia articles are required to have a reliable reference, the result is that virtually none of the publications representing frontier subjects are allowed. By extension, it can be seen that none of these publications are considered “in the literature” by the mainstream community of science and academia.

Those who study paranormal phenomena seek to maintain the same high standard of excellence in their work as people in the mainstream, and knowledge of current understanding in the field is as essential as it is for mainstream science. However, a survey of “the literature” in frontier subjects cannot have the same meaning as it does for mainstream science. The remedy is to establish a standard for what is considered “in the literature” for frontier subjects. In the study of trans-etheric influences including Electronic Voice Phenomena (EVP) and hauntings phenomena, information provided by people who have experience in the field but who may not have academic training in the methods of scientific, can be meaningful, but is currently not easily accessed in a search of the literature.

The following guidelines are intended to help webmasters and publishers develop a central reference through which “qualified” documents can be found. A writer’s guide is also provided to assist authors develop reports that can be realistically considered “in the literature” (qualified). It should be noted that the Association for TransCommunication (formerly AA-EVP) will maintain a list of known central reference lists with a search tool populated with web pages supporting these lists.

What is a Qualified Article?

Emphasis is on accessibility. requirements for an article to be considered “qualified” include:

  • An average person should be able to read it without first paying a fee or private membership in an organization
  • It should be availability on the the Internet
  • It should be able to be located using readily available search tools
  • The article should clearly indicate the subject area and kind of article (essay, opinion, research report)
  • Clearly indicate how to access the articles

Articles do not necessarily need to comply with the writer’s guide . However, the guide should be considered a Best practice.

Recommendations for Qualified Article Index:

The only requirement for the article guide is that it is accessible to the public and includes only qualified articles. It may be helpful to categorize articles by subject and type. A typical list of types might include:

  • Field observations
  • Original research
  • Meta analysis

Accounts of routine activities such as hauntings investigations, séances or tests of new ideas for transcommunication should not be included unless they lead to empirical evidence. In all cases, articles should comply with the writer’s guide.

  1. National Science Foundation, nsf.gov/ ,  NSF Science and Engineering Indicators 2006, Chapter 7: Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Understanding, nsf.gov/statistics/seind06/c7/c7s2.htm
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Grants for Research into Life after Death

The Helene Reeder Memorial Fund for Research into Life after Death (HRF)
2016 Announcement for Grant

The Helene Reeder Fund is pleased to announce the availability of grants for small and medium-sized scientific research projects concerning the question of life after death. Grants will be awarded in the range of EUR 500 – 5000 maximum (as of 4-3-2016, about $548 – $5,482).

The topic, Research into Life after Death, should be the main objective of the project.

Applications in English to be submitted by email to the HRF c/omuller_address should include:

  • Detailed description of the project, including the objectives of the project
  • Methodology
  • Cost budget
  • Timetable
  • Plans to publish the results in some scientific journals
  • CV (Curriculum Vitae) of the applicant
  • How the applicant plans to report back to the HRF about progress and result
  • Any other financing than from HRF

Applications should be received not later than 15 October 2016. It is the intention of the HRF to evaluate the applications and to make decision regarding the grants before the end of December. Applicants will be notified by email after the decision and the grants will be payable during December.

For further information, please apply to the above email address.

The Helene Reeder Memorial Fund for Research into Life after Death, HRF.

Edgar E. Müller

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Research Project: Energy Profile of Transform EVP

proposed by Tom Butler
Previously published in the Summer, 2013 ATransC NewsJournal
The study began with: Seeking EVP Examples for Study

Abstract

The propose of the article, with Seeking EVP Examples for Study, is to issue a call for transform Electronic Voice Phenomena (EVP) examples in the form of an audio output file containing the EVP and a file containing the environmental sound and/or sound used as input for voice formation. Both files must be so configured as to allow side-by-side comparison from a marker sound. The examples will be analyzed in an effort to find a relationship between EVP formation and the energy profile of the sound file which contains the example.

An overview of the various forms of EVP and current theories for transform EVP formation are provided. A hypothesis is proposed that transform EVP are formed via stochastic resonance and that the source energy in the form of the message (that which is amplified) is made available by strategically apporting sounds already present in the physical. The study is expected to show a net increase in energy associated with EVP.

Introduction

One of the first questions we faced in 2000 as new directors of the AA-EVP concerned how the paranormal voices of Electronic Voice Phenomena (EVP) are formed. Since any serious study of any phenomenon requires a theory describing the means of its formation, one of our first acts was to draft a theory for EVP formation.

Early efforts to model EVP were confused by the different technologies being used to produce the phenomenal voices. Stefan Bion1 developed EVPmaker which depends on the psi influence on a random process to select prerecorded voice fragments to produce EVP. Frank Sumpton2 introduced radio-sweep, which depends on bits of fortuitously occurring radio broadcast sounds to produce EVP. More recently, Bill Chappell3 developed devices for EVP that depend on environmental energy changes to select words or voice fragments to produce EVP.

Ordinary audio recorders have been used since the discovery of EVP in 1959, and EVP examples produced by them are an often studied form of EVP. Listening panels consistently rate audio recorder EVP higher than those collected with other technologies.4 Since the examples collected with a recorder have been shown to be formed out of available background noise, they are referred to by ATransC as “transform EVP.”

At the turn of the century, Alexander MacRae,5 Paolo Presi6 and Daniele Gullà7 were amongst the few people conducting studies of EVP using scientific methodology. Based on that early work, it was possible to compile a list of common characteristics exhibited by EVP which is still used today.8

Functional Areas of a Recorder

It may be useful to first have a picture of the functional areas of an audio recorder. In Figure 1, the left triangle represents the input amplifier for a typical digital voice recorder. Because the sound received from the environment is necessarily analog, the input stage is also analog. The diagram equally applies to a computer being used as a recorder with microphone and speakers.

Figure 2 shows the basic parts of all analog stages. Note the feedback loop used as a gain control. This circuit is designed to promote stability and signal quality. It often involves threshold limits that, like the squelch control for CB radio, is capable of introducing instability in the signal flow if not correctly designed.

The Analog-to-Digital conversion process (A/D) is shown in Figure 3. Note in Figure 1 that the input amplifier is connected directly to the A/D stage, and that the output of the A/D is digital in the form of “binary words” which represent the amplitude of the signal and when in time that amplitude was measured.

Design of these components is usually based on the principle that information about a sine wave can be digitally stored and the wave can be later reproduced with only two samples. Voice is in the 5 Hz to 4 kHz range which can be reproduced with a sample rate of 8 kHz.

analog-stage-evpThis design approach also means that recorders can only record what can be sampled. A digital voice recorder such as a Panasonic RR-DR60 with a sample rate of 8 Khz will only record up to 4 Khz sound. Music-quality recorders should have a sample rate of at least 44.4 Khz and record up to 22 Khz. In practical terms, the average digital recorder is incapable of recording audio that is outside of normal hearing.

Note also in Figure 3 that the digital words representing each sample are pulses rather than an analog wave. Each “word” has start and stop pulses which allows the internal computer program to know where the word belongs in the sound stream. Any other digital word, say from a cell phone, cannot be confused with words in the recording device.

What this means is that stray radio waves cannot be detected in the digital stage. It is possible for AM radio to be detected by the input amplifier and included in the conversion to digital; however.

Active, Nonlinear Regions

A typical electronic circuit consists of resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors. Of these, only transistors are used to amplify a signal; they are nonlinear devices, meaning that there may be a gain between the input and the output. The important point is that the region between the input and output where gain occurs is an energetically active region, meaning there is a dynamic change in energy and not just the storage or loss of energy. This region may be where the telekinetic psi influence is able to produce changes in ambient noise to produce the voices of EVP.

The presence of active regions is important because all of the theories for how EVP are formed depend on a nonlinear, active region. It is also important because the physical processes in these active regions are near quantum scale, which is the level of granularity that is possibly required for detection of psi influences.

Single Point of EVP Injection

Evidence indicates that transform EVP are formed in a single channel of a recorder. For instance, when using a stereo recorder, the EVP will be found on only one side. When using many recorders at the same time, say in a group setting, the EVP will be found on only one of the recorders. This suggests that the information is “injected” into the circuit at a specific place … possibly in one of the potentially dozens of transistors in the typical input stage of a recorder.

Transform EVP Characteristics

Common characteristics of transform EVP provide insight about the nature of their formation:

EVP Forms in Analog Circuits

As a general rule, once an EVP sound file is placed in digital memory, it is faithfully reproduced each time it is played. This indicates that EVP formation probably occurs somewhere between the input and the A/D conversion as shown in Figure 1.

Ambient Noise

Evidence indicates that the voice in EVP is formed from available audio-frequency sound. For instance, it is possible to produce layered EVP composed of elf-like voices formed from the high frequency sound of trickling water and more human sounding voices from the lower-frequency sound of a common household fan.

Microphone Not Required

A microphone is not required if the recorder has sufficient internal noise; however, one is useful for introducing additional noise and making a record of the practitioner’s actions.

Most Useful Sound for EVP Formation

Broad-spectrum audio-frequency sound with many transients (spikes or short pulses) appears to be more effective for voice formation than a steady-state signal with little change in amplitude, phase or frequency. See Figure 4.

Cultural Influence of Content

There appears to be a cultural influence on EVP that is related to the practitioner’s beliefs or those of an interested observer. In view of this, there appears to be a similarity between coloring of mediumistic messages and EVP; both may share a common process.

EVP are Objective

Blind listening panel tests average 20% to 25% correct understanding of multiple-syllables examples. Questions of illusion, delusion, deception and the ordinary being mistaken as paranormal have been addressed and discarded under controlled conditions.

EVP are Interactive

A question can be asked with the expectation of recording an answer which is appropriate for the circumstance. An important practical application of EVP is the potential to establish meaningful, continuing communication with a transitioned loved one. In such admittedly rare instances, gender, age and the nature of unexpected information in the EVP can be agreed to by uninformed witnesses.

EVP Are Intended Communication

Both the etheric communicator and the practitioner’s attention is on the recorder during a session, and more specifically, on the microphone or “input” of the recorder. This understanding is reinforced by the fact that EVP are formed in one channel and possibly in one component.

Transform EVP Hypothesis

This hypothesis is based on the Trans-survival Hypothesis, which is further explained in the Cosmology Series of essays. These articles are available for review in the theory section of ATransC.org. Please contact us if you are unable to access the material online.

(It is important to keep in mind that this is a proposed model designed to explain how EVP are formed. It requires vetting that can only come from you. Please let us know your thoughts and suggestions.)

EVP are conceptual influences which produce objective effects. Any theory explaining their formation must necessarily address both the conceptual (etheric space) of the communication and the objective (physical space). With this in mind, the hypothesis is presented here in three parts:

Morphic Field

The term “morphic field” is suggested by the concept of “morphogenesis”; “morphic” is a suffix meaning “having a specified shape or form.” “Fields” in this context are conceptualized as subtle energy regions of reality which organize the formation of objects of reality including life forms, physical objects and ideas; thought forms.

A morphic field9 is a subtle energy field that defines and causes the organization of component parts of an object into a unit. In biology, it is theorized that this is the guiding principle determining how cells form, each according to its unique purpose. For this to be possible, morphic fields must contain the rules determining which of many possible outcomes will be expressed by biochemical processes for a specific life form but which are common to all living organisms. This selection of possible outcomes may be comparable to the selection of audio characteristics for voice formation.

Morphic fields are etheric rather than physical, and as such, represent the necessary interface between the etheric communicators and the physical recorder for EVP formation. Since they bring order to processes, they are the expression of the person’s intention for the process to unfold.

The fields also represent habitual behavior or collective memory of what they represent. In the context of EVP, this memory would tend to assure that the most common expression of something is the easiest. While the momentum of habit is the dominating influence, research indicates10 the expression of intention can and does change the field. In that way, the field “learns,” and once learned, if the result is successful, the influence of the new “habit” is universally expressed in every instance of the field. In the same way, as EVP becomes easier in one location, it should become easier everywhere.

Stochastic Amplification

As objects of etheric space, morphic fields require a physical process to have a physical effect. Stochastic resonance11 is a physical process by which a weak signal is amplified in a nonlinear system when a large noise background signal is applied. Since a common factor in many forms of trans-etheric influence is the presence of noise, it is speculated that a weak telekinetic influence (the signal) is made stronger via stochastic amplification. In electronic circuits, the active regions of tubes and transistors provide the necessary nonlinear condition for amplification.

In this theory, a morphic field is thought to represent the weak psi signal, but rather than the signal containing explicit information such as “Hello,” it would contain influences on the stochastic process favoring the selection of audio-frequency energy required to say, “Hello.”

Adaptive Materialization

waveform-power-profileSome amount of order naturally occurs in noise, which results in a “bunchiness” in reality where one would expect an even distribution. This appears to be true at all scales and is likely due to small variations being amplified via stochastic resonance. EVP formation appears to be affected by this uneven distribution; the optimum background noise for EVP has been shown to be broad-spectrum audio-frequency sound punctuated by short spikes or sharp perturbations in the noise. The words are formed out of the sound but the spikes appear to be useful to initiate the process. See Figure 4.

Especially considering the nature of EVP, it is evident that trans-etheric influences are energy-limited phenomena. This naturally leads to the question of where the energy comes from in the first place.

Apports are an important class of objective phenomena. They are physical objects “found” in one part of the physical and transported to another location, usually as a sign or gift. A communicating entity is credited with control of the process, which in essence, is the dematerialization of a physical object, movement of the resulting conceptual information in etheric space and the materialization of the object in a new location.

Apportation is spontaneous and seemingly impossible to study clinically, so little is known about possible ways it may manifest. However, there is evidence that the basic process is common to Instrumental TransCommunication (ITC). Some examples of paranormally produced photographs of “the other side” resemble physical locations enough to bring accusations of fraud. Some examples of visual ITC look very much as if they are based on available photographs. In EVP, there are examples that appear to have been taken directly from existing sound files.

A fundamental concept in the Trans-survival Hypothesis is that a physical person is necessary to provide the conduit through which an etheric influence is made physical. That would argue that the actual words in EVP, as physical objects, must either already be in the physical or be formed via the practitioner–probably as a psi influence.

From the perspective of energy efficiency, it may be more reasonable to hypothesize a form of “adaptive materialization” as the mechanism bringing the words to the EVP formation process. In that view, it might be simplest to find the required word somewhere in the physical and apport it to the transform process. This would seem to be the only way to produce an EVP containing information the practitioner or an interested observer does not already know. This possibility provides a compelling reason for people to suspend judgment when faced with “obvious fraud” in things paranormal.

A Study To Determine the Energy Profile of EVP

Because EVP is probably the most available for study of these phenomena, the ATransC has embarked on a research project to determine the energy profile of output file waveforms containing EVP. The objective is to compare the input signals to determine if there is a difference in energy profile, and if so, what may have caused it and where it was caused.

This is the first of a series of studies intended to test the Transform EVP Hypothesis described in this article. To begin, if a change in energy profile can be noted in many examples using sound scientific methodology, then it should be possible to use that foundation of understanding to develop further experiments.

The expected result of this study is to establish the paranormality of EVP based on sound evidence, or to provide the necessary understanding to explain in normal terms how the voices are formed.

Who Can Participate

Anyone able to follow the protocol is welcome to participate. The Idea Exchange is available for questions and answers, and as always, we are available for questions via email. This first phase will also include a search for confident research practitioners.14

Protocol

All submissions should be sent to the ATransC.

  • Two sound files should be submitted for each EVP example. One containing the EVP, and if possible, the practitioner’s voice. The second should be made with a second recorder and contain the ambient noise from which the EVP was formed. A sharp noise or the practitioner’s voice should mark the beginning of both files. Both files should be less than a minute in duration and should be able to be compared by synchronizing them on left and right channels of a display. (It would help if this comparison file was also submitted.)
  • Before submission, examples should be screened by a blind listening panel to help assure they are objective.12
  • Once sufficient examples have been received, a research facility will be asked to conduct the energy profile study.
  • Examples will be screened by the research facility for usefulness in the study. Practitioners might consider using their initial submissions as an interview for participation in further study. Please review the Best Practice for Research Practitioner.13

Conclusion

The most important common factor in transcommunication is the expression of intended order in otherwise chaotic systems. This order is hypothesized to be accomplished by way of the ordering influence of morphic fields on physical processes.

A second important common factor is efficiency, as transcommunication is clearly no trivial matter. It is governed by the influence of intention, whether in support as belief, acceptance and willingness to learn, or in opposition as fear, doubt, denial or ideology.

Understanding these influences is central to the understanding of EVP. All indications are that EVP are messages from our discarnate loved ones, but it is not necessary to depend on indications. With predictions based on a well-considered hypothesis and tested with carefully designed experiments, it should be possible to establish not only whether or not EVP are paranormal, but also how they are formed. Since examples of EVP can be collected more or less on demand by confident practitioners, they provide perhaps the most important tool in the etheric studies arsenal for understanding the true nature of our etheric personality, our survival beyond physical “death” and our continued life in the greater reality.

References

  1. Bion, Stephan – EVPmaker,
    de/evpmaker/index_e.htm
  2. Sumpton, Frank – “The ‘Box,’” Spirits say the darnedest
    things,
    pine-tree-lady.proboards.com/thread/9
  3. Chappell, Bill – Digital Dowsing, digitaldowsing.com
  4. Butler, Tom, “EVPmaker with Allophones: Where are We
    Now?,” ATransC Journal, atransc.org/evpmaker-study-where-are-we-now/;
    Heinen, Cindy, “Information Gathering Using EVPmaker With
    Allophone,” ATransC NewsJournal, atransc.org;
    Leary, Mark, “A Research Study into the Interpretation of
    EVP,” ATransC NewsJournal, atransc.org
  5. MacRae, Alexander – “A Report about Experimental Results,”
    ATransC NewsJournal, atransc.org/macrae-experimental-results/
  6. Presi, Paolo, “Italian Research in ITC,” ATransC NewsJournal,
    atransc.org/presi-il-laboratorio/
  7. Daniele Gullà, “Computer–Based Analysis of Supposed
    Paranormal Voice,” ATransC NewsJournal, atransc.org/gulla-voice-analysis/
  8. Butler, Tom, “Characteristic Test for EVP,” ATransC Best
    Practices, atransc.org/bp/Characteristic_Test_for_EVP
  9. Sheldrake, Rupert, “Morphic Resonance and Morphic
    Fields: An Introduction,” sheldrake.org/research/morphic-resonance/introduction
  10. Sheldrake, Rupert, “An experimental test of the hypothesis
    of formative causation,” Rivista di Biologia – Biology
    Forum 86, sheldrake.org/Articles&Papers/papers/morphic/formative.html
  11. Mark McDonnell Mark and Abbott, Derek, “What Is
    Stochastic Resonance?” Plos Computational Biology,
    2009, nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2660436/
  12. “Best Practice: Witness Panel,” The Collective,
    atransc.org/bp/Witness_Panel
  13. “Best Practices: Research Practitioner,” The Collective,
    atransc.org/bp/Research_Practitioner

 

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Seeking EVP Examples for Study

by Tom Butler
See: The Energy Profile of Transform EVP

ATransC is seeking examples of Transform EVP that can be compared to supplied background sound so that the difference in waveform can be clearly demonstrated.

Objective

It is well-known that EVP are formed by transforming available audio-frequency energy to produce the intended voice. Current theory holds that the transform process is the result of stochastic amplification occurring in an active component of the recording device–probably a transistor junction.

If the voice in EVP is formed from background noise, then there should be a detectable difference between input and output of the stage of the recorder in which the transform is thought to occur. For a digital voice recorder, that would be between the microphone and before the memory circuit. A way to test this theory is to use recorded sound as a known background source and comparing the resulting EVP sound file with the same part of the supplied background sound file.

This study is in two parts. In the first phase, the examples provided by website visitors should provide a collection of “convincing” transform EVP examples. Second, for Phase 2 of the study, if a sufficient number of convincing examples are collected, a research facility will be asked to analyze the examples in an attempt to identify possible anomalous differences in energy profiles between input and output files.

Phase 2 of this study will be expensive and sufficient funding has not been arranged at this time, so Phase 2 will be pending good examples and sufficient funding. Also, it is likely that examples will be needed that have been recorded under more controlled conditions. Assuming this is the case, Phase 1 of this study should be considered an interview process to select practitioners who are more likely to be able to produce additional examples.

Requirements

You are asked to either use a pre-recorded background sound source or use two recorders.

Once an EVP is recorded that is able to be correctly understood by at least two people without prompting, the sound file containing the EVP with a few seconds of sound file before and after the utterance should be saved with sufficient labeling to distinguish it from others, as: (c)your_name_year-title. For instance: (c)butler2012-compare_transform.mp3

A second file should be saved containing the the portion of the background sound file associated with the EVP example. It is important that a third file be composed, as in the example above, so that both input and output files can be compared as synchronized sounds.

Practitioners wishing to participate in this study should use the contact form at the bottom of each web page to inform us that you wish to send in an example. You will receive the email address to use with our response.

You will retain ownership of the example sound files, but will be asked for permission for use of the sound files for the study, and potentially, in articles on this website. ATransC will require your real name, but you may remain anonymous beyond that. ATransC does not share personal information without specific permission from the person.

Participants need not be a ATransC member, but as always, you are encouraged to support the organization via your membership and donations if you think this kind of work is of  value to the the study of these phenomena.

Hint: It is useful to add some form of marker in the supplied sound file as a beacon so that the input and output files can more easily be synchronized. This is especially important if a steady-state input file is used, such as white noise.

 

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A Report about Experimental Results

by Alexander MacRae
Previously published in the Summer 2007 AA-EVP NewsJournal

calexander_macrae2007In 2004, I applied for a research grant to the Bial Foundation to investigate whether or not EVP utterances could be related to questions asked by the EVP experimenter. Also on the team were Dr. Charl Vorster, a professor of clinical psychology, Jane Boyce and her team of listeners in England and a larger number of listeners in the US.

I wanted to make it as exact and formal as a physics experiment, but problems showed up even before we had properly started. I had devised a list of six standard questions which were asked one at a time, with thirty-second intervals between asking one question and the next. This was done in a standard formal way, with good, quite loud voice projection. One of the questions was, “What is your name?” So I’d ask:

Question (loudly spoken): What-is-your-name?

The reply surprised me. It sounded like the street-wise NYC cat in the cartoon series, Top Cat.

Response: “Who wansta know?”

Another time when I asked the same question, I got the same type of response.

Question (loudly spoken): What-is-your-name?

Response: “Stop shoving’ me around”

What on earth was going on?

Eventually I realized that the questions must have sounded like an interrogation, like a questioning authority. “My golly,” I thought, “these are sentient entities. They are sensitive to what I say, or at least, to the way that I say it.”

So the question was modified to, “Would you mind telling me your name?” and the intentionality was toned down, so it just sounded kind and interested and casual. And, the results were good.

There were four sessions in March 2005 and a good percentage of the responses were in context and in the right thirty-second time-frame. Already the point was proven!

calexander_macrae2007-working_memory But in April we began to lose some of the response categories. There were no in-context responses to some of the questions. Were they losing interest in those questions?

Even stranger, however, was the fact that there were one or two in-context responses that occurred BEFORE the questions were asked.

In May, there were some more anticipatory responses. In fact you could see the trend growing from late March until early May. More and more answers came before the question was asked. So were the entities not just sentient but precognitive? Or had they just learned what was going to happen?

Later, it looked as though it was just an experimenter effect. Two more things were happening. The number of responses was growing rapidly, month on month, but the number of in-context responses was decreasing. The responses were becoming more meaningless.

But then, as the months went by, it was noticed that, though the responses had ceased to relate to the questions asked, they were actually relating to each other. Here is a made-up example:

1st voice: I’ll never see John again.
2nd voice: You never liked him anyway.
3rd voice: You can talk, loser.
4th voice: Stop your noise. Give me peace.

calexander_macrae2007Trying to make sense of this required a great deal of analysis, and I will try to compress this, in what follows.

The present understanding is that a part of the brain called the phonological loop is involved. Centuries ago, without the knowledge that we have nowadays about neural networks, the Swedish scientist Emmanuel Swedenborg, wrote that the speech of spirits was characterized by being rapid and rhythmic. (Spiritual Diary by Emanuel Swedenborg), and early EVP research, too, typified EVP as being speeded up and rhythmic.

My own first research showed that, based on many examples from other people, the length of an EVP utterance was typically less than two seconds. This observation was corroborated in Europe by Ernst Senkowski and Carlo Trajna. Coincidentally, it so happens that the size of the working memory in the part of the brain called the phonological loop is around two seconds.

The above diagram is based on the Introduction to Experimental Psychology course at McMaster University, Canada. Notice the use of the terms “inner ear” and “inner voice.”

The recognition of sound patterns goes way back on the evolutionary tree and is crucial to survival. You’d better recognize a lion’s roar, and quickly, if you don’t want to end up as its lunch. Recognition had to be exact and it had to be fast. And this is still true of the sound-pattern recognition system that we call speech.

The recognition process occurs through rapid recycling of the speech pattern through the phonological loop. As the memory storage to do this is only two seconds long, the empty spaces between words are “a waste of space,” and so these intervals are compressed to a standard shortness; “formatted,” to borrow a computer word. This means that the “inner speech” has a regular beat which is staccato or rhythmic. And it is shortened in time; “speeded up” is the usual term used.

In other words, there is a 100% correspondence between “inner speech” and EVP. The implication is that for EVP, you still need an actual person around. The way that Swedenborg put it, hundreds of years ago:

“Human speech passes in through the ear, by an external way, by means of the air; but the speech of spirits does not enter through the ear, nor by means of the air; but by an internal way, into the same organs of the head or brain. Consequently, the hearing is the same.” (Arcana Coelestia (Paragraph 1635) by Emanuel Swedenborg)

“…it is spiritual ideas which constitute their speech. When these inflows into man’s memory they excite words corresponding to the ideas and the like, which man has in his memory.” (Spiritual Diary (Para 2138) by Emanuel Swedenborg)

So you could say that EVP, like mediumship, needs a participating person to work. You could it call it Electronic Mediumship (EM). How inner speech gets from the brain to the EVP equipment is a remaining puzzle, but one that we are looking into.

Once again, thanks to all who participated in the Bial Project, it has led to a big advance in our understanding of EVP.

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